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Refineries

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Abstract This chapter describes various units and process streams that are often susceptible corrosion inhibitors in crude oil refineries, discusses the types and applications of corrosion inhibitors, and provides some information on corrosion monitoring techniques used at refineries...
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Published: 30 November 2013
Fig. 12 Hydrogen-damaged refinery platformer line (carbon steel, 0.5% Mo). (a) Undamaged microstructure. (b) Decarburization region caused by hydrogen depleting the iron carbides. (c) Microfissuring at inclusions. (d) Hydrogen blister caused by methane gas formation. (a) and (b), nital etch More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 11.20 Results of a field test at 700 °C (1290 °F) for 6 months in a refinery (crude oil) heater comparing alloy 657 to HH and HK alloys. Source: Ref 2 More
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Published: 01 December 1989
Fig. 1.6. Generalized over-all refinery from crude oil to salable products (American Petroleum Institute, cited in Ref 6 ). More
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Published: 01 December 1995
Fig. 11-12 Example of cast-weld construction for a refinery catalytic cracking unit. The large cylindrical section is a centrifugal casting. More
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Published: 01 December 2015
Fig. 33 Stress-oriented hydrogen-induced cracking in refinery plate steel. Note the stacked array of hydrogen blister cracks going through the thickness of the material (vertical) oriented perpendicular to the direction of the applied tensile stress (horizontal). More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... Abstract Fireside corrosion can be a serious problem in oil-fired boilers and in refinery furnaces fired with low-grade fuels. This chapter provides an overview of fireside or oil-ash corrosion and the problems it can cause in utility power boilers and petrochemical refinery furnaces...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Abstract This chapter presents the primary considerations and mechanisms for corrosion and how they are involved in the selection of materials for process equipment in petroleum refineries and petrochemical plants. In addition, specific information on mechanical properties, corrosion, sulfide...
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Published: 01 December 2015
Fig. 47 Effect of ammonium bisulfide concentration on corrosion at 93 °C (200 °F) of several materials in simulated refinery sour water environment More
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Published: 01 January 2000
Fig. 65 Hydrogen-induced blistering in a 9.5 mm (⅜ in.) thick carbon steel (ASTM A 285 Grade C) plate that had been in service 1 year in a refinery vessel. 1½× More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.t60490001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
... to 5.2 50 to 750 Hydrogen treating 205 to 427 400 to 800 0.1 to 10 15 to 1500 ASTM specifications for steels commonly used in refinery and petrochemical equipment<xref ref-type="table-fn" rid="t60490001-t2-tn1">(a)</xref> (<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="t60490001-ref10">Ref 10</xref>) Table...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
.... Industrial case studies demonstrating the necessity for testing each galvanic couple in the environment for which it is intended are presented. The chapter also discusses various factors associated with stress-corrosion cracking in oil refineries. carbon steel weldments heat affected zone corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Abstract This chapter discusses the particular corrosion problems encountered and the methods of control used in petroleum production and the storage and transportation of oil and gas up to the refinery. It begins by describing those aspects of corrosion that tend to be unique to corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... vessels, and refinery equipment. oil country tubular goods line pipe offshore platforms liquefied natural gas vessels refinery equipment stainless steel corrosion prevention Summary THE PETROLEUM INDUSTRY has had to deal with increasingly hostile environments in its search for new...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... bleaching, and paper manufacturing. Corrosion of Weldments in Petroleum Refining and Petrochemical Operations For practical purposes, corrosion in refineries and petrochemical plants can be classified into two types of corrosion: Low-temperature (aqueous) corrosion occurring below approximately...
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Published: 01 January 2000
, and fumes released from chemical plants and refineries. The most aggressive conditions are often found in places of intense industrial activity where the coating is frequently wetted by rain, snow, and other forms of condensation. In these areas, sulfur compounds can combine with atmospheric moisture More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... and refinery equipment. Finally, extensive discussion on the materials problems in coal-fired boilers, oil-fired boilers, waste-to-energy boilers, and black liquor recovery boilers is included. In summary, the subjects covered extensively in this book include: Oxidation Nitridation Carburization...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... 17.3 Hydrogen Attack in Petroleum Refining In petroleum refining, some refinery equipment, such as reactors in hydrotreating, reforming, and hydrocracking units, is exposed to a high-temperature, high-pressure hydrogen atmosphere. Hydrogen attack is potentially a very serious materials issue...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.t60490329
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
... hydrogen damage in petroleum refinery equipment (<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="t60490329-ref55">Ref 55</xref>) Table 7.5. Japanese experience with high-temperature hydrogen damage in petroleum refinery equipment ( Ref 55 ) Equipment Material Operating temperature, °C Hydrogen partial pressure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430376
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Lobley G.R. , Stress Corrosion Cracking: Case Studies in Refinery Equipment , 6th Saudi Engineering Conference , Vol 5 , Dec 2002 ( Dhahran ), p 17 – 26 6.38 Wagner C. , Defending Boiler Components Against Corrosive and Erosive Attack , The Fabricator , Sept 2013 , https...