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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... forming operations. It discusses the effect of holes, fillets, and radii on the distribution of stresses and the use of notch tensile testing to detect metallurgical embrittlement. The chapter also covers compression, shear, and torsion testing, the prediction of yielding, residual stress, and hardness...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... the number of forming stations, tool geometry for each station (punch and die diameter, punch corner, and die corner radii), draw depth for each forming station, and blank holder force (if needed) at each station. The challenging tasks in designing a process sequence are how to determine the minimum number...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... of forging equipment to be used, the number of parts to be forged, the application of the part, and the overall economy of the process being designed. The finisher die is then designed with allowances added for flash, draft, shrinkage, fillet and corner radii, and positioning of the parting line. When using...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... used in the U-channel draw test. The test has three variables: tool radii (punch and die), tool gap, and draw bead penetration. The effect of yield strength on springback for three steels is illustrated in Fig. 12.6 . Springback increases with increase in yield strength of the steel. Martensitic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... and R 2 , respectively. Fig. 5.4 Initial (left) and pressurized (right) sheet in the hydraulic bulge test and geometrical/process-related parameters Fig. 5.5 Hoop (σ 1 ) and transverse (σ 2 ) stresses and dome radii shown in a slab from the apex of the dome By using membrane...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... parts are designed with minimum draw depth and reduced stretch to avoid splits. Also, gentle shape transitions are used to avoid wrinkles and large radii are specified to facilitate metal flow. The following forming guidelines are the result of lessons learned from AHSS case studies ( Ref 14.2...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
..., with wrinkling and fracture limits for three blank geometries. Source: Ref 10 Fig. 18 The most severe bend that can be tolerated by each of the standard tempers of cold rolled carbon steel strip. Stock of No. 1 (hard) temper is sometimes used for bending to large radii; each lot should be checked...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tt2.t51060033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-355-3
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... where t is the thickness of the bulged tube, and r θ and r z are radii of curvature in the hoop and longitudinal directions, respectively. When r z is very large compared to r θ , the second term in Eq 9.16 vanishes. Hence, P i becomes a function of t , σ θ , and r : (Eq 9.17...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270146
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... fitting is shown in Fig. CH34.1 . A crack 45 mm in length was noticed on one of the root radii, penetrating through the thickness. Dye-penetrant inspection revealed the crack more clearly ( Fig. CH34.2 ). Fig. CH34.1 The bottom wing root joint Fig. CH34.2 (a) and (b) Two views...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870489
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... and the core properties. Each of these methods except honeycomb assemblies requires one or more filler nuggets formed at the radii. For small radii, a twisted rope of a toughened adhesive film can be used. It is important that the adhesive be toughened to prevent microcracking of the nugget. For larger radii...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... mechanical and thermal loading and unloading of the dies. Fatigue is accelerated in the vicinity of stress concentrations, such as small radii. The third cause of die failure is plastic deformation. Plastic deformation results from forming pressures that exceed the yield strength of the die material...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htgpge.t67320133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-347-8
..., automotive, or aerospace gears are quite often gas nitrided. Hence, this process is of interest to gear engineers. Recently, ion nitriding and computer-controlled nitriding (Nitreg process) are also being used in certain applications. Gas Nitriding Process Recommended Tip and Edge Radii of Teeth...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... can be as high as 140 MPa (20 ksi). Rubber pad forming can often be used to form tighter radii and more severe contours than other forming methods because of the multidirectional nature of the force exerted on the workpiece. The rubber acts somewhat like a blankholder, helping to eliminate...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
...), hybrid, and twisting ( Ref 6.47 ). A pure bending springback occurs only in plane-strain bending. The membrane springback is the elastic recovery of the in-plane tension/compression stresses. This type of springback may occur in pure stretch forming with dies having large die and punch radii. Shrinkages...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
... and sufficient fillet radii at the root diameter for tip clearance can be attained without allowances for cutter clearance. Fig. 2 Examples of powder metallurgy gear forms. Courtesy of Carbon City Products Fig. 3 Features produced in powder metallurgy gears. (a) True involute forms. (b) Gear...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... of advanced high-strength steels (DP 780, TRIP 780, and DP 980) by considering the effects of different die radii, materials/coatings, and lubricants ( Ref 7.18 ). The SDT ( Fig. 7.8 ) is a simplified version of a round cup deep drawing test ( Fig. 7.9 ). Fig. 7.8 Schematic of strip drawing test. R5...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
..., workpiece defects, heat treating practice, and tempering practice. Features such as sharp corners, fillets, radii, tooling marks, keyways and the number, location, and size of holes are termed stress risers . Abrupt changes in section thickness within a workpiece can promote nonuniform cooling during...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
... Hardness Recommended Tip and Edge Radii of Teeth The microstructure of nitrided steels is comprised of three distinct regions: the compound layer, the diffusion zone, and the core ( Fig. 2 ). The compound layer remains unetched in nital (3% nitric acid in ethyl alcohol) and appears white under...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... 1977 , p 127 2.20 Kim K. and Altan T. , Shear Fracture in Bending Advance High-Strength Steel Sharp Die Radii Make AHSS Vulnerable , Stamp. J. , Dec 2008 , p 14 – 15 2.21 Theis H.E. , Handbook of Metal Forming Processes , Marcel Dekker, Inc. , 1999 10.1201...