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Porosity

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
...Abstract Abstract Porosity in aluminum is caused by the precipitation of hydrogen from liquid solution or by shrinkage during solidification, and more usually by a combination of these effects. Nonmetallic inclusions entrained before solidification influence porosity formation and mechanical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420429
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... –0.95 Si Diamond cubic –12 (a) fcc, face-centered cubic; hcp, hexagonal close-packed; bcc, body-centered cubic; bct, body-centered tetragonal. Source: Ref B.2 Fig. B.13 Porosity in cast metals. Source: Ref B.7 as published in Ref B.2 Fig. B.3 Dendrite formation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
...Abstract Abstract This chapter examines the static, fatigue, and damage tolerance properties of glass, aramid, and carbon fiber systems. It also explains how delaminations, voids, porosity, fiber distortion, and fastener hole defects affect impact resistance and strength. aramid fibers...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
..., gravity, micro, and inverse. The chapter also provides information on grain refinement and secondary dendrite arm spacing and porosity and shrinkage in castings. It concludes with a brief overview of six of the most important casting processes in industries: sand casting, plaster mold casting, evaporative...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... solidification and porosity is also discussed along with its detrimental effect on the mechanical properties of metal castings. alloying elements carbides cast metals inclusions mechanical properties microsegregation microstructure porosity solidification VIRTUALLY ALL STEEL PRODUCTS have been...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
...Abstract Abstract Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) is a process refinement available to address internal porosity in castings. The HIP process may be used, in particular, for applications requiring very high quality and performance. This chapter discusses the principles, advantages...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the practices and procedures used to reveal and record macrostructural features such as hardening depth, weld thickness, crack size, porosity, hot folds, and machining and tooling marks. It provides information on sectioning, sample location, orientation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... machining process, with propagation directed to the internal diameter Fig. 19 Sample that was analyzed Fig. 12 Internal porosity formed from the surface Fig. 7 Typical morphology of a defect called a pinhole, caused by gases Fig. 1 Sharp edge elimination. (a) Sharp...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
..., and dimensional inspection. Casting defects including porosity, oxide films, inclusions, hot tears, metal penetration, and surface defects are reviewed. Liquid penetrant inspection, magnetic particle inspection, eddy current inspection, radiographic inspection, ultrasonic inspection, and leak testing for castings...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... °F) for 20 min. Source: Ref 7 Fig. 7.1 Solid-solution hardening effect of various alloying elements in ferrite. Source: Ref 1 Fig. 7.2 Ratio of properties in porous iron as a function of porosity: 1, density; 2, electrical conductivity; 3, Young’s modulus; 4, tensile strength...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... how patterns, molds, and shells are produced, discusses the practice of directional solidification, and examines an assortment of turbine components cast from nickel- and cobalt-base alloys. The chapter also addresses casting problems such as inclusions, porosity, distortion, core shift, and leaching...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
... homogenization, and the cause of casting defects, including cracking and splitting, segregation, porosity, and grain growth. aluminum alloys billets casting casting defects The extrusion process consists of four major components, hydraulic press, die, tooling, and billet casting. In the previous...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... in process involving plastics, emulsions, ceramics, and porous structures and foams. Improvements in the design processes have led to the development of functional structures, controlled porosity, and bioinspired structures. binder jetting bound-metal deposition fused-filament fabrication plastics...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... density (compaction pressure 55 TSI), and then sintering in 100% hydrogen at 1205 °C (2200 °F) for 30 minutes (sintered density of 6.95 g/cm 3 ). As-polished Fig. 9 Photomicrograph of high temperature 1315 °C (2400 °F), hydrogen sintered 304L showing well-rounded porosity, precipitate-free grain...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... 3200 390 3600 381 4000 362 PM-4400 190 4800 182 5000 190 Fig. 6.169 Macrostructure having excessive weld penetration with porosities Fig. 6.171 (a) Close-up view of the tube indicating a transverse crack with irregular contours in the HAZ of the weld. (b) Crack...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610377
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... Compression RT (a) 250 °F (a) Out-of-round holes   50/40/10 laminate (b) — —   30/60/10 laminate –4.8 — — Broken fibers exit side of hole   Severe –7.3 –8.4 –9.2   Moderate –1.4 –3.2 –4.2 Porosity around hole   Severe (b) –10.3 –30.8   Severe...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... the weld metal and the base metal Porosity: Cavity type discontinuities formed by gas entrapment during solidification Overlap: The protrusion of weld metal beyond the toe or root of the weld Tungsten inclusions: Particles from tungsten electrodes embedded in the weld metal that result from...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780131
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
... to make after the epoxy has cured. If a two-part epoxy is mixed too aggressively, bubbles can form and induce porosity, resulting in a leak path. The failure analysis team can section the epoxy to determine if porosity is present. Sometimes, porosity can be seen with a simple external visual...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... during curing, they normally result in either the need for a repair or scrapping of the part if the foreign object is large enough or located in a highly stressed area. The cure process can also result in defects, the most serious being porosity and voids. If an adhesive bonding operation is involved...