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PH

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Published: 01 January 2017
Fig. 1.14 Relationship between pH-potential conditions for severe cracking susceptibility of carbon steel in various environments and the stability regions for solid and dissolved species on the electrochemical equilibrium diagram. Note that severe susceptibility is encountered where More
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Published: 01 January 2017
Fig. 1.15 Potential-pH diagrams showing the domains of failure mode for 70Cu-30Zn brass in various solutions, together with the calculated positions of various boundaries relating to the domains of stability of different chemical species More
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Published: 01 January 2017
Fig. 1.16 Potential-pH Pourbaix diagram for iron in water at 25 °C (77 °F). A decrease in pH from 9 to 6 at potential of −0.2 V , which shifts iron from a region of stability to one of active corrosion, is indicated by the solid bar. More
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Published: 01 January 2017
Fig. 3.3 Values of potential and pH at the crack tips of several steels during stress-corrosion crack propagation. Source: Ref 3.6 More
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Published: 01 January 2017
Fig. 3.4 Effects of anodic and cathodic (impressed) potential on the pH at the tip of propagating stress-corrosion cracks in AISI 4340 steel. Source: Ref 3.6 More
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Published: 01 January 2017
Fig. 3.5 Chemistry and pH changes in a crack growing in saltwater. Note: Chloride ions have only a kinetic influence (see text). Source: Ref 3.7 More
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Published: 01 January 2017
Fig. 3.38 Effect of pH on delayed failure stress for low-alloy steel in H 2 S saturated acetic acid solution containing sodium acetate buffer. Source: Ref 3.46 More
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Published: 01 January 2017
Fig. 4.22 Effect of pH on the chloride content and temperature required to produce SCC of type 304 in sodium chloride solutions. After Ref 4.69 More
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Published: 01 January 2017
Fig. 5.1 Schematic potential-pH diagram for a corrosion-resistant alloy indicating different regimes of environmentally assisted cracking. For simplicity, only the regions of iron stability are shown. More
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Published: 01 January 2017
Fig. 7.3 Time to cracking as a function of the pH for brass in ammoniacal copper sulfate solutions (Mattsson’s solutions). Note that the specimen tested at pH of 2 did not fail in 1000 h of testing. After Ref 7.9 More
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Published: 01 January 2017
Fig. 7.4 Potential pH diagram for a system of copper and a water solution with 1.0 g·mol/L of ammonia partly as ammonium sulfate and 0.05 g·atom/L of dissolved copper added as sulfate at 25 °C (77 °F). Numbers refer to equations from Ref 7.9 . The shaded zone marks solution properties More
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Published: 01 January 2017
Fig. 7.5 Effect of pH on average SCC velocity of brass specimens tested in two ammoniacal solutions. ◯, 0.88 mol/L of NH 3 + 0.05 mol/L Cu. □, 7.8 mol/L of NH 3 + 0.05 mol/L Cu. Source: Ref 7.23 More
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Published: 01 January 2017
Fig. 7.6 Maximum crack depth as a function of pH and CuSO 4 content measured on U-bend specimens exposed to 0.1 M Na 2 SO 4 + 0.005 N Cl − . Data to the left of the curves refer to the CuSO 4 molar concentration. Test time = 240 h. Source: Ref 7.26 More
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Published: 01 January 2017
Fig. 7.16 Effects of grain diameter and solution pH on the stress required to initiate cracking of α brass in Mattsson’s solution in slow-strain-rate tests. Source: Ref 7.49 More
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Published: 01 January 2017
Fig. 14.2 Crack velocity as a function of pH for soda-lime-silica glass (left) and vitreous silica (right). Note that slopes in high pH are similar to that in water. After Ref 14.10 More
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Published: 01 January 2017
Fig. 18.19 Stress-corrosion cracking of a 17-4 PH stainless steel turbine shroud band. (a) Numerous circumferential cracks were observed in the shroud-band holes. (b) Partially penetrating stress-corrosion cracks emanating from a tendon opening. Original magnification: 50×. (c) Intergranular More
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 7.4 Time-temperature schedule for the production of hot rolled TRIP and dual-phase (DP) steels. Source: Ref 7.6 More
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Published: 01 December 1984
Figure 2-34 The structure of polyamide. Top, polished bulk sample etched with xylol, photographed with interference contrast illumination. 100 ×. Bottom, thin section examined in transmitted polarized light, 100 ×. (Courtesy of W. U. Kopp, K & B Grubbs Instrument GmbH & Co. KG.) More
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Published: 01 December 2009
Fig. 11.8 High-performance liquid chromatography equipment pumps the mobile liquid phase through the stationary phase and identifies emerging compounds using refractive techniques. More
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Published: 01 January 2000
Fig. 15 The pH of several common environments More