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Normalizing (heat treatment)

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Published: 01 September 2008
Fig. 4 Crack resulting from the normalization heat treatment of an AISI 1045 steel cast hull caused by thinning of the wall due to deficiency of the tooling or the core alignment More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 10.34 Cracks showing decarburized edges. The crack shape suggests these can be quench cracks from a previous heat treatment (see the section 10.3.5 “Quench Cracks” in this chapter). Decarburization happened during an annealing or normalizing heat treatment that resulted in the observed More
Image
Published: 01 September 2008
Fig. 5 Crack in the bottom of a machine molded from AISI 1030 steel that happened in the normalization heat treatment, caused by stress buildup in the sharp edge region More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... Abstract This chapter provides a practical understanding of heat treatments and how to employ them to optimize the properties and structures of cast irons and steels. It discusses annealing, normalizing, quenching, tempering, patenting, carburizing, nitriding, carbonitriding...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Abstract Cast irons, like steels, are iron-carbon alloys but with higher carbon levels than steels to take advantage of eutectic solidification in the binary iron-carbon system. Like steel, heat treatment of cast iron includes stress relieving, annealing, normalizing, through hardening...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... Abstract This chapter introduces the principal heat treating processes, namely normalizing, annealing, stress relieving, surface hardening, quenching, and tempering. An overview of four of the more popular surface hardening treatments, namely carburizing, carbonitriding, nitriding...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
.... The chapter concludes with a brief discussion on the mechanical properties of ferrite/pearlite microstructures in medium-carbon steels. annealing ferrite normalizing pearlite spherical carbides spheroidizing THIS CHAPTER DESCRIBES heat treatments that are designed to produce uniformity...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpclas.t64560235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-353-9
... Abstract This chapter describes the heat treatments called annealing and normalizing for steels and examines the structures formed and the reasons for these treatments. It also provides a description of the special heat treatments, namely, martempering and austempering. Information...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
... Abstract The through-hardening process is generally used for gears that do not require high surface hardness. Four different methods of heat treatment are primarily used for through-hardened gears. In ascending order of achievable hardness, these methods are annealing, normalizing and annealing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htgpge.t67320021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-347-8
... the requirement prior to heat treatment. Four different methods of heat treatment are primarily used for through-hardened gears. In ascending order of achievable hardness, these methods are annealing, normalizing and annealing, normalizing and tempering, and quenching and tempering. Sometimes, hardnesses...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... and inoculation of liquid iron. These processes are also discussed subsequently. Goal: Produce a Uniform Microstructure Normalizing A normalizing heat treatment is designed to produce a uniform microstructure. Normalizing also produces a finer grain size and improves machinability. To illustrate...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
... normalizing retained austenite tempering tool steel This chapter describes how the phases outlined in Chapter 4 are arranged into desired microstructures during the heat treatment of tool steels. Figures 5-1 and 5-2 show schematic diagrams of the processing steps required to produce finished...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... in Chapter 3 . Heat Treatments for Gray Irons The types of heat treatments used for gray irons include stress relieving, annealing, normalizing, heating for hardening by quenching, tempering, austempering, martempering, and flame and induction hardening (see Chapters 6 , 7 , and 9 for discussions...
Image
Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 10.1 Relationship to (a) iron-carbon diagram of isothermal transformation diagrams of (b) eutectoid steel and (c) steel containing 0.5% C. The regions in (a) identified as N, FA, and S are temperature ranges for normalizing, full annealing, and spheroidizing heat treatments, respectively More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440097
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
.... Austenitize at 815 °C (1500 °F). Quench in molten salt bath at 315 °C (600 °F). Hold at temperature for at least 1 h. Air cool. No tempering required. A more detailed discussion of the austempering practice is given at the end of this chapter. 1070—Recommended Heat Treatment Normalizing Heat to 885...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpclas.t64560001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-353-9
..., the precursor to hardening, is covered, followed by a treatment of annealing, normalizing, martempering, austempering and intercritical heat treatment. The heat treatment of steels is being increasingly modeled with computer programs, and this is reviewed. In the last chapter, examples of the use...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440275
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... Abstract This appendix discusses in brief the sources of decarburization of steels as well as the effect of heat treatment on the process. decarburization heat treatment steel DECARBURIZATION is defined as “a loss of carbon atoms from the surface of a ferrous material, thereby...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... the adjustment problems that result from this operation. Figures 4 to 6 illustrate failures that happened during the heat treatment operation due to poor design considerations. Figure 4 is a crack that occurred during the normalization heat treatment of an AISI 1045 steel cast hull. A prior thinning...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
.... The steps include selecting proper material and design of the part being treated; determining whether the process is capable of heat treatment; using statistical process control, control charting, and in-process inspection and testing; and applying statistical quality control and final testing (sampling...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... during tool use, leading to short service life. Failures just after heat treatment normally occur in the presence of some of the following features: heavy sections adjacent to light sections, sharp corners, stamp marks, blind holes, and improperly spaced holes (Ref 7) . Several of these faults...