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Nitric acid, environment

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... equipment. The overall corrosion performance of titanium in nitric acid is shown in Fig. 14.4 . This is a good first approximation in determining the suitability of titanium in a particular nitric acid environment. However, it should be used carefully because it is based on laboratory data rather than...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... lesser tendency to oxidize materials. Figure 2 illustrates the oxidizing/reducing power of several common environments. Concentrated nitric acid and wet chlorine environments are strongly oxidizing and promote the oxidation of all but the most noble metals. The oxidizing power of sulfuric acid...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... is restricted, as in deep crevices, corrosion can be accelerated. Breakdown of the protective oxide layer (passive layer) can occur from dry corrosive media (such as red fuming nitric acid), nonoxidizing aqueous environments as defined by a Pourbaix diagram, and pitting or crevice attack in near-neutral aqueous...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... nitric acid exhibits very low rates of corrosion, about 25 μm/year (1 mpy) ( Ref 8 ). This anomalous behavior was observed by Faraday over 150 years ago. In the concentrated acid, the iron immediately forms a thin passive film and remains bright while immersed. The effective noble state imparted...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... vapor degreasing or alkaline cleaning, and then immerse the parts in a 1 to 1 solution (by volume) of nitric acid (1.41 specific gravity, or sp gr) and water for 15 to 30 min at approximately 95 °F (35 °C). Water rinsing, followed by drying, completes the process. Another procedure that has been...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... and high-temperature strength. Increasing chromium to 30%, as in alloy 690 (N06690), also increases resistance to SCC in high-temperature (300 °C, or 570 °F) water and to corrosion in nitric acid solutions, steam, oxidizing gases, and shipboard waste-incinerator environments. Increasing chromium to 50...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... in zirconium and its alloys Environment Temperature, °C (°F) (a) Test methods (b) Cracking mode (c) Ref Aqueous solutions Oxidizing chloride solutions RT-BP U, T, SR, SSRT IG, TG 11.2 – 11.5 Nitric acid RT-204 (400) U, C, SSRT TG 11.6 – 11.8 Neutral halides (NaCl, KCl...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... was detected in an austenitic stainless steel in a copper sulfate-sulfuric acid (CuSO 4 -H 2 SO 4 ) pickling tank ( Ref 11 ). Another simulated-service test for alloys intended for service in nitric acid (HNO 3 ) plants is described in Ref 12 . In this case, for accelerated results, iron-chromium alloys were...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... common environments and their typical positions along the pH scale. Hydrochloric, sulfuric, and nitric acids are strong acids and have low pH values even in relatively dilute solutions. Boric, citric, and phosphoric acids are weaker acids and have pH values only slightly acidic. Tap water and seawater...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... Nil Ammonium nitrate + 1% nitric acid 28 Boiling Nil Ammonium oxalate Saturated Room Nil Ammonium perchlorate 20 88 (190) Nil Ammonium sulfate 10 100 (212) Nil Ammonium sulfate + 1% H 2 SO 4 Saturated Room 0.010 Aniline 100 Room Nil Aniline + 2% AlCl 3 98 158...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... the removal of surface oxides, which can be in the form of a case scale or a thin oxide tarnish. Any oxide formed under 600 °C (1100 °F) on titanium alloys can be removed with a nitric-hydrofluoric acid pickle bath. Oxides formed at temperatures above 600 °C (1100 °F) can be removed either mechanically...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030074
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... groups compared to that of 316L stainless steel (SS). (a) In boiling 10% sulfuric acid, reducing conditions. (b) In 10% boiling nitric acid, oxidizing conditions. Source: Data from Ref 3 Nickel-Copper A main application of nickel-copper alloys, alloy 400, K500, and Monel alloys...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... include the following: Reduce the aggressiveness of the environment, for example, chloride ions concentration, temperature, acidity, and oxidizing agents Upgrade the materials of construction, for example, use molybdenum-containing (4 to 6% Mo) stainless steels, molybdenum + tungsten nickel-base...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200274
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
...-containing austenitic grades of the CF type. The high-chromium CC50 alloy has good resistance to oxidizing corrosives, mixed nitric and sulfuric acids, and alkaline liquors. It is used for castings in contact with acid mine waters and in nitrocellulose production. For best impact strength, the alloy is made...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... Method for Seal Quality of Anodic Coatings on Aluminum by Acid Dissolution • B 732, Test Method for Evaluating the Corrosivity of Solder Fluxes for Copper Tubing Systems • B 735, Test Method for Porosity in Gold Coatings on Metal Substrates by Nitric Acid Vapor • B 741, Test Methods...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060369
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... steel may be pickled in an acid solution, often a mixture of nitric and hydrofluoric acids (HNO 3 -HF), to remove oxides formed during heat treatment. Once the surface is cleaned and the bulk composition of the stainless steel is exposed to air, the passive film forms immediately. ASTM A967 and A380 may...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... are atmospheric and marine environments and chemical environments such as sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, nitric acid, strong bases, and organic acids, such as acetic and formic. Pickling is an example of controlled, accelerated uniform corrosion. This is typically done with 10 to 20% hot sulfuric acid...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... density is plotted on a logarithmic scale. If conditions are oxidizing enough, even carbon steel can become passive. Concentrated nitric acid can be shipped in mild steel containers. However, the containers would corrode extremely rapidly if filled with dilute nitric acid. Oxygen is required...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... of nitric acid that stainless had its first industrial application. These are industries with purely need-driven material challenges. New processes are constantly in development, and they present new environments in which materials must perform. The choices are highly pragmatic. In an industrial environment...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.9781627083027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7