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Nitric acid

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
...Abstract Abstract The compound zone that forms on the surface of nitrided steels is often called the white layer. When the nitrided sample is sectioned through the case, and then polished and etched with a standard solution of nital (2 to 5% nitric acid and alcohol), the immediate surface...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... for removing metal contamination. A typical procedure for chemically removing iron, zinc, and thin films of lead is to first perform vapor degreasing or alkaline cleaning, and then immerse the parts in a 1 to 1 solution (by volume) of nitric acid (1.41 specific gravity, or sp gr) and water for 15 to 30 min...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
...% nitric acid in alcohol (nital), as seen in Fig. 8.1(c) . Also important are those etchants that chemically stain, tint, and color the constituents in the microstructure, for example, the Beraha’s tint etch in Fig. 8.1(e) . These etchants work by depositing chemical films on the surface of certain...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... Ammonium nitrate + 1% nitric acid 28 Boiling Nil Ammonium oxalate Saturated Room Nil Ammonium perchlorate 20 88 (190) Nil Ammonium sulfate 10 100 (212) Nil Ammonium sulfate + 1% H 2 SO 4 Saturated Room 0.010 Aniline 100 Room Nil Aniline + 2% AlCl 3 98 158 (316...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... 0.8 30 10% (a) 38 100 400 16.0 30 0.25% (a) 95 205 76 3.0 10 2% (b) Boiling point Boiling point 125 5.0 17 7–8% (b) 60 140 125 5.0 A nitric-hydrofluoric acid solution, which is the final stage brightening in most alloy cleaning lines, should be maintained...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... Titanium grade 7 65% nitric acid 0.41 (16) 0.254 (10) 0.15 (6) 0.3 (12) 30% FeCl 3 Severe pitting Nil Nil Nil 15% chromic acid >10 (>400) 12.7 (500) Nil Nil 20% acetic acid 0.1 (4) Nil Nil Nil 5% sulfuric acid >2.5 (>100) 25 (1000) >2.5 (>100) 0.5 (20...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... nitrite ions, passivated Fig. 5.42 Approximate polarization curves for iron, nickel, chromium, and titanium in 1 N H 2 SO 4 . Approximate cathodic polarization curves for reduction of nitric acid, dissolved oxygen, and hydrogen ions. An explanation for predicting corrosion behavior based...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
.... , STP 633, ASTM , 1976 , p 589 11.59 Cox B. , STP 681, ASTM , 1978 , p 306 11.60 Ishijima Y. et al. , “ Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior of Zirconium in Boiling Nitric Acid Solutions at Oxide Formation Potentials ,” Mater. Trans. , Vol 54 ( No. 6 ), 2013 , p 1001...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... lesser tendency to oxidize materials. Figure 2 illustrates the oxidizing/reducing power of several common environments. Concentrated nitric acid and wet chlorine environments are strongly oxidizing and promote the oxidation of all but the most noble metals. The oxidizing power of sulfuric acid...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... of titanium alloys Table 13.4 Environments and temperatures that can be conducive to stress-corrosion cracking of titanium alloys Environment Temperature Hot dry chloride salts 260–480 °C (500–900 °F) Seawater, distilled water, and aqueous solutions Ambient Nitric acid, red fuming...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... Chromium carbide sensitization only Microscopic examination; classification of etch structure B Ferric sulfate-50% sulfuric acid boiling 120 h Chromium carbide Weight-loss/corrosion rate C 65% Nitric acid boiling 240 h Chromium carbide and sigma phase Weight-loss/corrosion rate D 10...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... 825 (N08825), and the cast stainless steel CN-7M (J95150), whereas higher-silicon stainless steel, such as S32615, has been used for handling hot, concentrated sulfuric acid. Phosphoric acid is handled by high-molybdenum grades, such as alloy 28 (N08028), G-30 (N06030), and 3127hMo (N08031). Nitric...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... or glycerin) that reduces ionization, and an oxidizer (such as hydrogen peroxide, Fe 3 + , or Cu 2 + ). In some etchants one component serves two of these functions, such as nitric acid in nital. In electrolytic etchants, the applied current acts as the oxidizer. Because etching involves controlled...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230493
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
.... At Brush Wellman, most of the pickling is done in a nitric acid or sulfuric acid-peroxide bath. The spent acid liquor is neutralized with a caustic solution to precipitate the copper oxide and copper hydroxide. Analysis of typical by-product feeds Table 27.2 Analysis of typical by-product feeds...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030074
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
...% sulfuric acid, reducing conditions. (b) In 10% boiling nitric acid, oxidizing conditions. Source: Data from Ref 3 Abstract Abstract This chapter is dedicated mostly to the metallurgical effects on the corrosion behavior of corrosion-resistant alloys. It begins with a section describing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850060
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... be performed with an abrasive slurry applied to the wire, by a chemical solution (generally acidic) dripped onto the wire, or by electrolytic action. Although cutting rates are very low, the deformation produced is negligible. Wire saws employing abrasives are quite popular in the electronics industry...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
...) Nitric and hydrofluoric acids 5 mL HNO 3 , 1 mL HF (48%), 44 mL distilled water Use cold for about 5 min under hood; HF is harmful to skin For revealing general structure of austenitic stainless steel with avoidance of strain markings Heat tinting Heat only in air for 10–60 s at about 595–650 °C...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... or dissolves, then the metal can revert to active behavior and rapid dissolution can occur. For example, an iron sample immersed in either concentrated (70%) or dilute (water added) nitric acid exhibits no reaction (immune behavior) or passive behavior. However, if the iron is scratched with a glass rod...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
...-SEM inspection of those wires found that they contained slip plane fractures that would likely etch rapidly in the presence of nitric acid and cause the wire to weaken before the sulfate coating could be fully developed. Analysis of any future copper wire field return units with open circuit...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... abruptly. Note the current density is plotted on a logarithmic scale. If conditions are oxidizing enough, even carbon steel can become passive. Concentrated nitric acid can be shipped in mild steel containers. However, the containers would corrode extremely rapidly if filled with dilute nitric acid...