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Natural gas pipes

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Published: 01 January 2017
Fig. 18.12 Fluorescent-dye/magnetic-particle indication of a SCC colony on the bottom of a natural gas pipe More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... Abstract This chapter discusses various factors pertinent to the prevention of corrosion in alloys for petroleum applications and reviews the selection of stainless steels for petroleum applications, including oil country tubular goods, line pipe, offshore platforms, liquefied natural gas...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Abstract This chapter discusses the most common causes and contributing factors for external corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking on oil and natural gas pipelines, as well as describes procedures for prevention, mitigation, detection, assessment, and repair. The forms of external corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... nitrate solution concentration. Stress-corrosion cracking of natural gas pipelines has been linked to environments consisting of carbonate/bicarbonate solutions in the buried soil environment. The development of the corrosive environment on the OD surfaces of piping has been associated with slightly...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
..., and relocation and also to provide procedures to assess risk of brittle fracture ( Ref 3 ). 8.5 Safety Regulations for Transmission Pipelines Failures of Oil Transmission Pipelines A pipeline for gasoline, in Minnesota, constructed in 1957 with electric resistance welded (ERW) pipes, burst on July 8...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... safe operation of natural gas pipelines. A detailed analysis of critical locations where water would most likely accumulate provides information about relevant parts, from the perspective of a potential for corrosion damage of the piping system ( Ref 53 , 54 ). A two-tiered procedure for the ICDA...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... acids, and elemental sulfur. In certain circumstances, natural gas reservoirs may also contain elemental mercury as an additional impurity with the result being additional concerns from the standpoint of corrosion. Additional unique aspects are the extremes of temperature and, particularly, pressure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... region consisting of voids and fibrils is known as a craze ( Fig. 3 ). The long-chain nature of polymers is responsible for crazing. Without the long chains, it would not be possible to form the fibrils that span the craze and prevent the conversion of the craze into a crack. Although crazing is usually...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... in higher resistivity soil. Accelerated corrosion occurs on the foreign line at the point of current discharge. The location of the discharge can be detected because the pipe-to-soil potential is very low at that point. Likewise in an oil or gas field, where the flow-line system or the well casings from...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... have increasing need for the use of high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steels such as API 5L X70 and X80 due to the cost savings they afford, especially in long piping systems that transport crude oil or natural gas. Transport conditions, however, are becoming increasingly sour (higher H 2 S concentrations...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfw.t52860081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-338-6
..., flexible pipe was designed, developed, tested, and is being used to revitalize oil and gas wells previously thought to be “watered out,” that is, no longer economically productive. Tables 7.1 and 7.2 present the physical/mechanical properties of these CDPs. As shown, two designs of the smaller-diameter...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
..., such as freshwater ( Ref 11 ). In summary, preferential weldment corrosion of carbon steels has been observed in diverse applications, from plate steels in the marine industry to pipe and process equipment, piping tankage, pressure vessels ( Ref 15 ), and similar equipment in the oil and gas sectors. Some...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... material because of its nonreactive nature with ammonia gas. However, its fragility would result in mechanical damage, making glass impractical for use in a production nitriding environment. Insulating Refractory Firebrick Insulating refractory firebrick can be used to line the process chamber...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfw.t52860007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-338-6
... of technology is used in the high-speed production of pipes and tubes as well as compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders. Multiple-spindle winders with two, three, or four axes of motion are used. Fig. 2.13 Handling device loading five wound and cured parts into a conveyor system Curing Ovens...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... waters Nuclear power generation Carbon and stainless steel piping and tanks; copper-nickel, stainless, brass and aluminum bronze cooling water pipes and tubes, especially during construction, hydrotest, and outage periods Onshore and offshore oil and gas industries Mothballed and waterflood...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... considered a high-temperature metal; welding and cutting must be done under inert gas atmospheres with specific procedures to prevent embrittlement ( Ref 22 , 23 ). From a practical point of view, the use of titanium in refinery and petrochemical plant service is limited to temperatures below 260 °C (500 °F...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... ( Ref 4 ). In summary, preferential weldment corrosion of carbon steels has been observed in diverse applications, from plate steels in the marine industry to pipe and process equipment, piping tankage, pressure vessels ( Ref 9 ), and similar equipment in the oil and gas sectors. Some typical case...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... were built in the 1970s; sour gas well pipe came along in the 1980s; and automotive valves for passenger car engines were used in the 1990s. Engineering Properties The nonaerospace use of titanium can be broken down into four general categories. Although each is based on the general property...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... basic types: flowing wells, which have a natural flow of hydrocarbons and water to the surface, and artificially lifted wells, which require some form of pump. The latter type includes rod-pumped wells, which use a positive-displacement downhole pump connected to the surface by rods; gas-lifted wells...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030360
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... the focus away from set periods of inspection (prescriptive regime) to the setting of inspection periods that reflected the true condition and nature of the equipment and its specific service conditions (risk-based regime). Allied to this, developments in equipment, methods, and procedures for noninvasive...