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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Abstract This chapter discusses the most common causes and contributing factors for external corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking on oil and natural gas pipelines, as well as describes procedures for prevention, mitigation, detection, assessment, and repair. The forms of external corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Abstract This chapter examines methods of internal corrosion prediction for multiphase pipelines and details methodologies to perform internal corrosion direct assessment for natural gas pipelines. Further, real-time monitoring techniques for assessing actual corrosion at critical locations...
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 3.14 A natural gas pipeline that failed during field testing. Source: Ref 3.5 . More
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Published: 01 June 1983
Figure 3.1 Interior view of liquefied natural gas tank lined with a low thermal expansion alloy. (Photograph courtesy of McDonnell Douglas, Astronautics Laboratory and Gaz-Transport.) More
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Published: 01 December 1995
Fig. 2-87 Hole opener castings used in the oilwell and natural gas drilling process More
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Published: 01 March 2006
Fig. 9.2 Devastation caused by brittle fracture of liquid natural gas tank in Cleveland, Ohio, Oct 1944 More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... Abstract This chapter discusses various factors pertinent to the prevention of corrosion in alloys for petroleum applications and reviews the selection of stainless steels for petroleum applications, including oil country tubular goods, line pipe, offshore platforms, liquefied natural gas...
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Published: 31 December 2020
Fig. 8 Increase in end-quench hardenability by adding ammonia to the carburizing atmosphere. These curves were obtained under the following processing conditions: 3 hour treatment time at 840 °C (1550 °F), water quench; furnace atmospheres: 90% endothermic carrier gas, 10% natural gas under More
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Published: 01 March 2006
Fig. 5 Voltage across electrodes of a typical oxygen probe as a function of carbon potential at four temperatures, for endothermic gas enriched with natural gas and containing 20% CO. Source: Ref 3 More
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Published: 01 March 2006
Fig. 20 Industrial-gas nitrogen-base atmosphere processes. (a) Protective atmosphere using H 2 and N 2 . (b) Carbon-controlled atmosphere using methanol and natural gas. Source: Ref 13 More
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Published: 30 April 2020
Fig. 7.19 Outline sketch of a batch binder-removal furnace, where the components rest inside a retort. The heaters are outside the retort, and gas flow is directed over the components to capture burnout vapors or to combust the vapors into a natural gas flame. More
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Published: 01 January 2017
Fig. 18.12 Fluorescent-dye/magnetic-particle indication of a SCC colony on the bottom of a natural gas pipe More
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Published: 01 December 1999
Fig. 2.7 Effect of leak rate on the decarburization of SAE 8620 after 2 h at 850 °C in a nitrogen/4% natural gas atmosphere. Source: Ref 2 More
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Published: 01 September 2008
Fig. 51 Effect of air ingression into the carburization atmosphere (N 2 /4% natural gas) on the decarburization of SAE 8620 after 2 h at 850 °C. Source: Ref 94 More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 7.1 Alloy 601 tube suffering localized sulfidation attack. The tube was in service at about 930 °C (1700 °F) in a natural gas-fired furnace making ceramic tiles. Sulfur was believed to come from the ceramic feedstock. More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
.... 1.2 Schematic showing basic principle of a watertube boiler Almost any solid, liquid, or gaseous fuel can be burned in a watertube boiler. Commonly used fuels include coal, oil, natural gas, and biomass. These boilers can be used under forced, induced, and balanced draft conditions so...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... to as just endo gas) to control the CO 2 levels in furnaces to produce either neutral or carburizing gases for steel heat treating and carburizing. The gas is generated by burning natural gas (methane, or CH 4 ) in a very hot catalytic converter. The endo gas contains roughly 40 vol% hydrogen (H 2 ) + 40...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... Energy costs are determined by the base fuel cost and the over-all efficiency of the heating system. On the average, electricity costs about 3.5 times as much as natural gas in recent years ( Fig. 12.1 ). However, heating-system efficiencies can mitigate this difference in fuel cost. Efficiency...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htgpge.t67320171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-347-8
... to carbon on the martensitic structure. Carbonitriding is performed in a closed furnace chamber with an atmosphere enriched with gaseous compound of carbon and nitrogen. Many types of gas are used. Common practice is to use an endothermic gas, such as natural gas, as a carrier for the ammonia...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... of the neat features of endo gas. By adjusting the air/natural gas input to the endo gas generator, the %CO 2 in the gas can be controlled, thereby setting the carbon potential to any desired level up to the maximum possible for austenite, which is given by the A cm composition, for example, 1.3% C at 927...