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Materials substitution

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... consumption per ton of steel. Source: AUTO STEEL, Steel Market Development Institute Fig. 16.1 Stages in life cycle emissions. Source: Ref 16.2 Abstract Abstract Improvement in processing, material substitution, light weighting, and recycling have contributed immensely to the cause...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
...: Phase Diagrams for Binary Alloys , 2nd ed., H. Okamoto, Ed., 2010. Four examples of the application of phase diagrams to alloy design are given: the development of a basis for age-hardening aluminum alloys, material substitution in two types of wrought stainless steel alloys to reduce costs...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... Vehicle design changes Lightweight/strong material substitution Downsizing a vehicle to reduce its weight proves to be difficult because consumers prefer the comfort and functionality of larger vehicles. Vehicle design changes can produce nominal reduction in vehicle weight. Lightweighting...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Substitutional Solid Solutions 3.3 Ordered Structures 3.4 Intermediate Phases 3.5 Dislocation Atmospheres and Strain Aging References References 1. Askeland D.R. , The Science and Engineering of Materials , 2nd ed. , PWS-Kent Publishing Co. , 1989 2. Porter D.A...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ciktmse.t56020001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-389-8
... of such impurities in reducing dislocation mobility and hence materials strength. For example, introduction of 0.1 atom % molybdenum (a substitutional impurity) into bcc iron results in a 2.6 MPa increase in yield strength compared with 79 MPa for carbon (an interstitial impurity). Upon application of a shear...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ciktmse.9781627083898
EISBN: 978-1-62708-389-8
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ciktmse.t56020013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-389-8
...: Substitutional Cation Impurities in Ionic Materials Problem 13: Substitutional Anion Impurities in Ionic Materials Problem 14: Nonstoichiometry Problem 15: Electrical Conductivity and Grain Size Problem 16: Preventing Vacuum Welding Problem 17: Which Type of Defect Is It? Problem 18: Defect...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
..., and Structure on Properties of Irons and Steels , Materials Selection and Design , Vol 20 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 1997 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002461 8.5 Guy A.G. and Hren J.R. , Elements of Physical Metallurgy , 3rd ed. , Addison-Wesley Publishing Company , 1974 8.6...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... solubility as a function of temperature for alloying elements most frequently added to aluminum Fig. 23 Atomic size of selected elements vs. iron, with iron assigned an arbitrary diameter value of 1.0. Elements within 15% of its size (0.85–1.15) have a favorable size factor for wide substitutional...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... , 3rd ed. , PWS Publishing Company , 1991 • Smith W.F. , Principles of Materials Science and Engineering , McGraw-Hill Book Company , 1986 There are two main types of diffusion that can occur in solids: interstitial diffusion and substitutional diffusion ( Fig. 5.2 ). Whether...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... and nickel atoms. It discusses the difference between interstitial and substitutional solid solutions and the factors that determine the type of solution that two metals are likely to form. It also addresses the development of intermediate phases, the role of free energy, transformation kinetics, liquid...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... (on the other side). Solid phases need not be pure materials; they also can be solutions. Crystalline solids may dissolve other elements. Solution of element B in crystals of A can occur by atoms of B substituting for A atoms in the crystal structure. This is called a substitutional solid solution...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdsm.t69870157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-344-7
...-Life and Stress-Strain Relationships , Fatigue Fract. Eng. Mater. Struct. , Vol 9 (No. 5 ), 1987 , p 343 – 356 10.1111/j.1460-2695.1987.tb00461.x 7.4 Landgraf R.W. Mitchell M.R. and LaPointe N.R. , “Monotonic and Cyclic Properties of Engineering Materials,” Ford Motor...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... grain morphology. It then discusses the concept of solid solutions, the difference between substitutional and interstitial solid solubility, the effect of alloying elements, and the development of intermetallic phases. The chapter also covers the construction and use of binary and ternary phase diagrams...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... of the increasing use of alloys for tool steels. The chapter provides information on the research investigations into the metallurgy of high-speed tool steels at MIT, Union Carbide, and Carbon Laboratories. The major research effort involved in substituting molybdenum for tungsten in high-speed tool steels...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... ( No. 6 ) Nov–Dec 1965 , p 652 – 657 (in English) 18. Lupton D. and Aldinger F. , Possible Substitutes for Tantalum in Chemical Plant Handling Mineral Acids , in Trends in Refractory Metals, Hard Metals, and Special Materials and Their Technology , Proceedings of the 10th Plansee...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
.... Most stainless steels are used in the metastable condition. For example, the common alloy 304 (also called 18–8) is normally used in the fully austenitic condition. It would “rather” be partly ferritic, but the substitutional diffusion of chromium in austenite that is required to form a ferrite phase...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... 32 55 Si Substitutional, ferrite stabilizer –0.00050 1.3 1.2 Nb Substitutional, ferrite stabilizer NA 2.6 5.0 Ti Substitutional, ferrite stabilizer NA 1.7 3.0 V Substitutional, ferrite stabilizer +0.00015 1.2 0.0 Mo Substitutional, ferrite stabilizer +0.00033 0.9...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... and an interstitial atom. Source: Ref 2.5 Fig. 2.28 Schottky mechanism of vacancy formation Fig. 2.29 Types of solid solutions. Two-dimensional model shows (a) the substitutional type, in which the solute atoms substitute at positions of the solvent atoms, and (b) the interstitial type, in which...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... have a much stronger influence on the properties of iron than substitutional alloying elements. However, even a small addition of carbon, less than its solubility limit, into pure iron substantially increases the room-temperature yield strength of the material ( Fig. 10.2 ). Fig. 10.2 Effect...