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Luders lines

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... ridges, frequently called “Lüders lines” or “stretcher strains,” are easily visible in this photograph. A tensile cup-and-cone fracture originates with many tiny internal fractures called “microvoids” near the center of the reduced area. These voids occur after the tensile strength has been attained...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.9781627083164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... under load is at first elastic. This portion of the stress-strain curve is characterized by a straight line, and strain is reversible when load is decreased. A yield strength is established on reaching a stress level sufficient to produce dislocation motion and measurable permanent change in dimension...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tt2.t51060101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-355-3
... by using a fine-grain material. The development of Lüders lines in rimmed steels can be prevented by temper rolling to 0.25 to 1.25% extension or by flex rolling, which produces mobile dislocations for a limited period of time, until they are trapped by nitrogen atoms. This also reduces elongation slightly...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... test specimen emphasizing 45° shear aspect of tensile fracture of a ductile metal. Diagonal ridges are Lüders lines or stretcher strains; porosity in steel shows many localized fractures. Source: Ref 1 Fig. 4 Typical stress-strain diagram showing different regions of elastic and plastic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... growth. To preserve the surfaces of the thin sheets, two sheets were mounted together. The black line in the center of the image corresponds to the region where the two sheet surfaces are in contact. Etchant: nital. Source: Ref 17 Fig. 12.33 Cross section of a piece of steel annealed after...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tt2.t51060013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-355-3
... in the tensile specimen. It is obtained by dividing the load ( P ) by the original area of the cross section of the specimen ( A 0 ): (Eq 1) s = P A 0 Fig. 1 Engineering stress-strain curve. Intersection of the dashed line with the curve determines the offset yield strength. See also...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... the Fe-Fe 3 C constitutional diagram (broken lines). (j) Variation of hardness with carbon content for the annealed steels illustrated in Fig. 6.1 to 6.3 . Fig. 6.3 (Part 2) (e) and (f) 0.6% C (0.61 C-0.08Si-0.60Mn, wt%). Austenitized at 860 °C, cooled at 10 °C/h. 200 HV. 13 vol...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tt2.t51060115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-355-3
... defects in metallic solids: Point defects, including vacancies and alloy or impurity atoms Line defects of dislocations Area defects, including grain and twin boundaries, phase boundaries, inclusion-matrix interfaces, and even external surfaces The characterization of these defects...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
.... Source: Ref 5 Fig. 12 Changing stress patterns in a bend. Source: Ref 7 Fig. 14 Tensile stress-strain curve for a low-carbon steel showing yield drop and stretcher strains (Lüders strains). Temper rolling removes the discontinuous yield behavior. Source: Ref 8 Fig. 15...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... that the metal not soften appreciably when placed in service. Yield-point elongation of low-carbon steel is due to discontinuous (inhomogeneous) deformation in that one or more discrete deformation bands—known as Lüders lines, Lüders bands, or stretcher strains—propagate at various positions along the length...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610585
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... in small forgings, such as seams, laps, flash line, or shear cracks, as well as hydrogen flakes and internal ruptures in heavy forgings aggravate cracking. Higher austenitizing temperatures increase the tendency toward quench cracking. In addition, steels with a coarser grain size are more prone...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
...° with respect to the direction of tension, are called Lüders bands or Lüders lines ( Fig. 2.5 ). When the test is in progress, more Lüders bands will form and propagate toward the middle of the specimen. The flow curve during the yield point elongation will be irregular, each jog corresponding to the formation...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... steels produced in a given year. Structural shapes and beams for buildings and bridges, plate for line pipe, and automotive sheet applications are just a few major applications for low-carbon steels. These applications are driven by manufacturing requirements for good formability and weldability...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410405
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... microstructures and for the diffusion of carbon in bcc iron ( Ref 18.12 ). Transmission electron microscopy, Fig. 18.9 , showed that the dislocation structure of the martensite in specimens in which serrated yielding had developed consisted of residual linear arrays of screw dislocation lines, in contrast...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... in Fig. 4.21 ). This phenomenon of discontinuous yielding occurs inhomogeneously in localized bands that are most commonly called Lüders lines or bands [1] and that propagate throughout the testpiece as the yield elongation increases until eventually the material is uniformly strained. Plastic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.9781627082587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... highly resistant to chemical attack and weathering. Low cost, ductile for deep drawing, and easy to weld. Used for high-purity applications such as chemical processing equipment. Also for nameplates, fan blades, flue lining, sheet metal work, spun holloware, and fin stock 1350 Electrical conductors...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tt2.t51060001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-355-3
..., the onset of the plasticity is usually described by an offset yield strength , which can be measured with greater reproducibility. It can be found by constructing a straight line parallel to the initial linear portion of the stress-strain curve, but offset by e = 0.002 or 0.2%. The yield strength...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... at room temperature, 20s immersion, approx. Segregation. Dendritic structure. Iron rich areas are normally darker. Fry Distilled water: 100 mL Hydrochloric acid 32%: 120–180 mL CuCl 2 : 90–45 g Deformation bands. Lüders bands in cold worked steel Ammonium persulfate Distilled water: 100 mL (NH 4...