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Low-energy electron diffraction

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... preparation techniques employ low energy milling (500eV-5keV) techniques to minimize the damage [28 - 29] . The preferred thickness of electron transparent section also depends on the requirements of various TEM techniques. In order to exploit the superior resolution (<0.2 nm) capabilities of high...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 23 January 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stemsem.t56000001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-292-1
... Abstract This chapter discusses the principles of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) as implemented using conventional scanning electron microscopes (SEMs). It describes the pros and cons of low-energy imaging and diffraction, addresses basic hardware requirements, and provides...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 23 January 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stemsem.9781627082921
EISBN: 978-1-62708-292-1
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
...., electron-electron collisions) between the primary beam electrons and the electrons of the sample atoms, as shown in Fig. 5.12 . They are low-energy electrons (normally with energy of less than 50 eV) and are emitted from the sample’s surface and near surface. They are generally emitted from a 5 to 50 nm...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
..., electrons termed Auger electrons ( Ref 1.5 ). These low energy electrons come from very close to specimen surfaces, on the order of a few nanometers, and therefore Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) is capable of showing thin concentrations of low atomic number elements exposed at fracture surfaces...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 23 January 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stemsem.t56000020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-292-1
.../S1431927616001100 16. N. Brodusch, et al., Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) with a Cold-Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope at Low Accelerating Voltage in Transmission Mode, Ultramicroscopy, Vol 203, 2019, p 21 36. httpsdoi.org/10.1016/j.ultramic.2018.12.015 ...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... as the lighter midsection. The lines running almost perpendicular to the lamella are subgrain boundaries. Figure 6.10 is a transmission electron micrograph taken from a thin foil of a high-strength, low-alloy (HSLA) steel showing round copper precipates in a matrix of ferrite. Also seen are arrays...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
.... 6.1.1 Secondary Electrons The cut-off energy value that separates secondary electrons (SEs) from backscattered electrons (BEs) is arbitrary. Secondary electrons are low-energy electrons (<50 eV) emitted by the sample. Because they have low energies, they can only escape from a narrow region very...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... bonding is shown schematically in Fig. A.3 . To complete the octet of electrons needed for atomic stability, electrons must be shared with 8- N neighboring atoms, where N is the number of valence electrons in the given element. High hardness and low electrical conductivity are general characteristics...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... levels or orbitals, as shown in Fig. 1 . Each electron’s energy depends on its quantum state or the orbital it inhabits, and the number of positively charged protons in the atom’s nucleus. Electrons with low principal quantum numbers (those close to the nucleus) are tightly bound; they require large...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
... at levels as low as 100 parts per million (ppm) and to develop lateral distributions by mapping, using both an energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer and a wavelength-dispersive spectrometer ( Ref 5.1 , 5.2 ). Electron probe microanalysis has been used in cold-sprayed coating characterization mainly...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... or by the use of inert gas atmospheres, argon and helium usually being satisfactory. Vacuum melting and heat treatment are hazardous from the standpoint of maintenance of composition unless the vapor pressures of all components concerned are very low. Vapor losses can be minimized by the use of positive...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... dislocation or twin structure of the martensite, the interfacial energy associated with the high density of lath or plate boundaries, and the retained austenite that is invariably present even in low-carbon steels. The supersaturation of carbon atoms provides the driving force for carbide formation; the high...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
.... Fig. 17.3 Density-of-states parabola. Source: Ref 2 Because only two electrons can occupy each level, the energy of an electron occupying a low energy level cannot be increased unless it has sufficient energy to allow it to jump to an empty level at the top of the band. The energy width...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
.... For temperatures that electronic devices operate in, the respective photonic energies are usually much lower in the far infra red. This effect is commonly used in Lock-In Thermography [5] . Good dielectric materials usually never show light emission. The field is high, but the current is extremely low. The PE...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... an outer shell electron drops down, thereby releasing energy. This energy may be released as an x-ray, or it may be carried away by another electron, known as an Auger electron, emitted from an outer shell. The Auger effect tends to dominate for low atomic number elements, and so relatively few x-rays...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... detector; therefore, they can also operate in the SEM mode. Fig. 4 The energy distribution of emitted electrons at (a) low beam energy (approximately 1 keV) and (b) a higher beam energy (approximately 5 keV) Secondary electrons generally display a peak intensity at approximately only 5 eV...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
.... It is one type of crystalline fracture and is associated with low-energy brittle fracture. Contrast with shear fracture. cleavage plane. A characteristic crystallographic plane or set of planes in a crystal on which cleavage fracture occurs easily. close annealing. Same as box annealing. close-packed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.9781627082969
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... of stacking faults, indicating a low level of stacking fault energy of 8 mJ/m 2 for Fe-24Mn compared to 15 mJ/m 2 for Fe-30Mn alloy. Fig. 13.10 Scanning electron microscope images of microstructure of (a) annealed and (b) deformed Fe-24Mn. Source: Ref 13.4 Analysis by EBSD gives a phase map...