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Low-carbon steel

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Published: 01 December 1996
Fig. 7-5 Microstructure of cold worked and annealed low carbon steel. A low-carbon sheet steel in the (a) as-cold rolled unannealed condition, (b) partially recrystallized annealed condition, and (c) fully recrystallized annealed condition. Marshall's etch. 1000 x (Adapted from B.L. Bramfitt More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... This chapter discusses various alloying and processing approaches to increase the strength of low-carbon steels. It describes hot-rolled low-carbon steels, cold-rolled and annealed low-carbon steels, interstitial-free or ultra-low carbon steels, high-strength, low-alloy (HSLA) steels, dual-phase...
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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 11.13 Low-strain portions of stress-strain curves of a low-carbon steel tested at various temperatures as shown. Source: Ref 11.6 More
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Published: 30 September 2023
Figure 8.20: Speed effect observed in rolling of low-carbon steel strip on a tandem mill. (a) Strip thickness as a function of rolling speed; (b) Friction coefficient calculated from industrial steel mills. More
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Published: 30 September 2023
Figure 11.31: Coefficient of friction in upsetting of (a) low-carbon steel and (b) copper with various lubricants. A - mineral oil; B - lauric acid in mineral oil; C - oleic acid in mineral oil; D - same as C, but oxidized surface. More
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 3.5 Inhomogeneous yielding of low carbon steel (a) and a linear polymer (b). After the initial stress maximum, the deformation in both materials occurs within a narrow band that propagates the length of the gage section before the stress rises again. More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 7.3 Extra low-carbon steel (Armco® iron). Ferrite grains and small nonmetallic inclusions. Etchant: aqua regia. More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 8.17 Dendrite in low-carbon steel. SEM, SE, no etching. Courtesy of ArcelorMittal Tubarão, Brazil. More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 9.76 Flowchart for the classification of constituents in low-carbon steel. The constituents are defined according to Table 9.4 . Source: Adapted from Ref 72 More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 10.22 Low carbon steel overheated in the austenitic single-phase field. Ferrite in an incomplete network and acicular ferrite. The incomplete ferrite network makes it possible to estimate the austenitic grain size prior to cooling (≅ 290 μm). This indicates the possibility of overheating More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 10.83 Cross section, close to the surface of a low carbon steel bar pack carburized. Observe the increase in the carbon content and austenitic grain size at the surface (left), which resulted in the formation of acicular constituents during cooling. Etchant: nital. More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 10.84 Cross section, close to the surface of a low carbon steel bar pack carburized after normalizing and tempering (from 770 °C, or 1420 °F). The carburized region, on the left, is martensitic. Etchant: nital. More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 11.1 Changes in the yield stress of a low carbon steel (LC) and an interstitial free (IF) steel. The region corresponding to the phase transformation is indicated. Source: Ref 1 More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 12.4 Macrograph of the longitudinal section of a low carbon steel bar presenting Lüders bands. Etchant: Fry. More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 12.11 Low carbon steel sheet C = 0.06%, Mn = 0.55%, after cold working, in the work hardened state, prior to annealing. Very elongated grains of ferrite and cementite. Hardness: 95 HRB. More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 12.15 The effect of annealing time and temperature on a low carbon steel hardness (C = 0.03%, Mn = 0.19%, Al = 0.13%) cold worked 84%, via cold rolling. For temperatures under 500 °C (930 °F), hardness is essentially independent from the structural changes for a long treatment time More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 12.16 (Part 1) The evolution of the microstructure of an extra low carbon steel (C = 0.011%, Mn = 0.193%) cold worked (90% reduction), annealed at different temperatures: (a) 540 °C (1000 °F), (b) 560 °C (1040 °F), (c) 580 °C (1075 °F), (d) 600 °C (1110 °F). (Remark: the α–γ More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 12.16 (Part 2) The evolution of the microstructure of an extra low carbon steel (C = 0.011%, Mn = 0.193%) cold worked (90% reduction), annealed at different temperatures: (e) 680 °C (1255 °F), (f) 720 °C (1330 °F), (g) 760 °C (1400 °F). (h) The evolution of the ferritic grain size More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 12.22 EBSD orientation map (OIM) of the extra low carbon steel in Fig. 12.16 , annealed at 760 °C (1400 °F). (a) Orientation map, reproduced in grayscale. The dark lines are high-angle grain boundaries. One can generate individual maps for each orientation (or color). (b) {111}<uvw More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 12.26 Sheet of low carbon steel (C = 0.046%, Mn = 0.3%) cold worked and partially recrystallized (recrystallized fraction approx. 10%). Etchant: nital 2%. More