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Lead (metal), Impurities

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... and properties of lead used in battery grids, type metals, and bearings. It, likewise, discusses the use of tin in various types of solder and in bearings and provides composition and property data for application-specific designations and grades. The article also discusses the effect of impurities in tin-lead...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
..., France Source: Ref 4.1 Six metals were used by prehistoric man: gold, silver, copper, tin, lead, and iron. Gold and silver were too soft to be useful for much except decoration. Copper could be hardened by hammering or forging and was therefore useful as a tool but had little value...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030167
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... not always lead to better corrosion resistance. This can occur if the element being alloyed for corrosion resistance has a low solubility in the metal/alloy to which it is being added. The low solubility can result in the formation of a second phase, which can degrade, rather than enhance, the corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... of impurities present in it. For instance, dissolved gases such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, and ammonia, and dissolved solids in BFW corrode various metals and alloys used in boiler applications. LowpH and high-pH conditions also lead to corrosion of boiler components at high temperatures. At a low pH, acid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... is called hot shortness. It almost always occurs when a liquid phase forms in metals, but only if the liquid wets the grain boundaries. For example, the lead in leaded brasses becomes molten in the solid brass matrix on heating. However, the lead does not wet the grain boundaries; it forms small spheres...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... oxides of different metallic elements where iron oxides in the form of Fe 3 O 4 (magnetite) and Fe 2 O 3 (hematite) were predominant. Chromium oxide was also present. Traces of alkali and alkaline earth element oxides were due to impurities carried with the steam. The presence of copper, zinc...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730037
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... , and their mobility, μ, σ = n μ q Mobility is the ratio of drift velocity to the electric field. Metallic Conduction Metals are excellent conductors. Table 4.1 lists the conductivities of some metals. Temperature and impurities affect the conductivities of metals. Their effects can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ps.t62440049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-352-2
... the majority of other low-melting-point solders (see Table 5.19 in Chapter 5 , section 5.7 ). Lead-tin solders are seldom pure, but often contain other elements, either as incidental impurities or as deliberate additions designed to modify specific properties. Three metal additions are routinely...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1983
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mlt.t62860163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-348-5
..., semiconductors, or most insulators. Theory and experiment relating to single crystals or thin films are mentioned only when the information leads to a better understanding of the technologically important metals. These basic topics are well described in the referenced texts. No discussion of resistivity...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Influenced Corrosion The chapter, “ Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion ,” discusses the interactions of the biofilms that form on virtually all structural metals and alloys immersed in aqueous environments. These interactions can lead to many of the forms of corrosion detailed previously...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230493
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... and undersized metallics (<20 mesh) are dissolved in acid. Customer scrap that does not meet specifications in terms of impurities is melted and cast as anodes for electrorefining. 27.2.1 Copper Recovery Caustic solutions are used for treating scrap dissolver solutions and spent nitric acid pickle...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... properties of beryllium metal. For example, the bonding in the basal plane appears to be metallic in nature, while the bonding perpendicular to the basal plane has a covalent character. This bonding anisotropy leads to the anisotropy of ambient-temperature elastic constants and slip properties, described...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... called the columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET), as shown in Fig. 15.6 . In metal alloys in which the as-solidified grain structure is directly inherited by the room-temperature casting, the presence of the long columnar grains will generally lead to low toughness. As previously discussed, fine...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
.... cast zinc alloys zinc alloys Composition Introduction and Overview Zinc, its alloys, and its chemical compounds represent the fourth most industrially used metal (behind iron, aluminum, and copper). Zinc is used in five principal applications: in coatings and anodes for corrosion protection...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240597
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the compositions, properties, and applications of nonferrous metals, including zirconium, hafnium, beryllium, lead, tin, gold, silver, and platinum group metals. It also addresses fusible alloys and provides melting temperatures for several compositions...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... for products of similar composition. Copper that is mixed with other metals, perhaps by having been tinned or soldered, or alloys to which lead has been added for machinability, can be used in alloys—such as bronze—that contain these metals. At present, approximately 70% of the zinc produced originates...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.9781627082839
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... and (b) for pure metals with foreign matter present. The presence of impurities reduces the amount of supercooling because impurities produce a strong nucleating effect, but the melting point itself remains unaffected. (c) Typical cooling curve for a solid-solution alloy. Note that freezing (L→S) occurs...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
...Abstract Abstract Brazing and soldering processes use a molten filler metal to wet the mating surfaces of a joint, with or without the aid of a fluxing agent, leading to the formation of a metallurgical bond between the filler and the respective components. This chapter discusses...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ciktmse.t56020001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-389-8
... for elemental solids. For example, the thermal expansion of aluminum, a soft metal, is 2.5 × 10 −5 /K, while that of a strong metal such as tungsten is 4.5 × 10 −6 /K. Line Defects Line defects can be categorized broadly into two types: edge and screw dislocations. These defects are formed either during...