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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... was the primary property. The growing field of missile technology began to consume increasing, although limited, amounts of titanium. The civilian airline industry began using increasing amounts of titanium with the introduction of the new jet-powered aircraft. These planes included the Boeing 707 and the Douglas...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
...% nital. 1000×. (c) Weld interface: heated at 925 °C for 30 min and cooled at 500 °C/h after welding. 1% nital. 1000×. (d) Weld interface: heated at 650 °C for 30 min after welding. 1% nital. 1000×. (e) Diagram illustrating how an impacting plate divides into two jets during explosive welding...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.horfi.t51180001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-256-3
... to the Boeing Stratoliner of 1938. But there was a vast difference between a piston-engine plane’s pressurization/ depressurization cycles and those of a jet, which not only climbed and flew twice as fast, but routinely cruised 3,048 m (10,000 ft) higher. On transport aircraft like the Constellation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
.... The SR-71 Blackbird (reconnaissance plane), which was 93% Ti, was the proving ground for sophisticated alloys and design configurations. Aerospace applications comprise approximately 70% of all titanium shipments, and jet engines use well over half of the total aerospace consumption. Even though...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdsm.t69870001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-344-7
... service of a power-generating component of an aircraft, either because of a failure, or because of fear of a possible failure, can disable a whole facility, or an entire fleet of aircraft. Consider, for example, the DC-10 jumbo jet aircraft failure that occurred in 1979. Figure 1.1 ( Ref 1.5...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
...—from models of flow of gas and particles in the prechamber, nozzle, and free jet. This section discusses briefly how this computation is usually achieved. There is also a discussion of the main outcome of such computations in cold spray research and development. Aims and Questions Principal...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... to control electrode movement; dielectric fluid pressure or vacuum system and filter. Computer numerical control and tool change capability available. Typical applications High-strengh, high-hardness materials; high-temperature alloy forgings; odd-shaped holes and cavities; jet engine blade airfoils...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
.... As he describes them, “They were the leading metallurgists during the first half of the 20th century, the time when the science of physical metallurgy developed,” ( Ref 2 ). FIG. 10.21 Samuel Leslie Hoyt and his book, Men of Metals . The invention of the single-crystal jet engine blade...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... Example 1: Cavitation Erosion of a Water-Cooled Aluminum Alloy 6061-T6 Combustion Chamber Cavitation Erosion Testing Liquid impingement erosion has been defined as “progressive loss of original material from a solid surface due to continued exposure to impacts by liquid drops or jets” ( Ref 8...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... of a fragment. These are produced only by explosive forces and not by any other means. Fig. 6.6 Spikes on the fracture edge of a fragment Fig. 6.7 SEM photograph of the spikes Explosive charges contain minute porosity. On detonation, these pores collapse to form tiny gas jets of high...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
...-velocity turbulent fluid, sudden or abrupt change in the direction of the flowing fluid, sudden changes in the fluid pressure resulting in a jetting effect, the presence of hard abrasive particles in the flowing fluid, or direct impingement of hard particles on a metal surface. The extent of metal loss...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
.... The furan binder jet printer head is mounted on slides capable of traversing in X and Y directions, as illustrated. A thin layer of sand is spread, and the furan binder jet head traverses to harden the profile in the chosen cross section. Once this layer is hardened, a second layer is evenly laid out...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... in sheet metal forming. (a) Thick-film lubrication. (b) Thin-film lubrication. (c) Boundary lubrication. Source: Ref 3 Fig. 5 Schematic of laser beam cutting with a gas jet. Source: Ref 1 Fig. 29 Schematic illustration of power spinning in a vertical machine. Source: Ref 18...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... are from the support grid. Vertical scale (intensity) is from 0 to 8,000 counts, and horizontal scale (energy) is from −0.2 to 20.3 keV. Fig. 6.38 A special leveling device mounted on the stage of the microhardness tester. The device is used to level an uneven specimen. Fig. 6.13 A jet...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hss.t52790193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-356-0
... was cancelled. Seventeen of the planes were purchased by the Flying Tiger Air Freight Company and became their entire fleet for several years. These were the only cargo planes ever built of stainless steel. Jet Engines Frank Whittle received a patent in England for a gas turbine engine of the type used...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.horfi.t51180029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-256-3
... Fig. 2 Space Shuttle main engine Fig. 3 Squeaky clean airplanes in a hangar filled with suds Fig. 1 Jet engine nacelle on a commercial airliner Fig. 4 The center span of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge writhes under a gale-force wind. Moments later the bridge collapsed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.t68410103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
.... The thin walls unique to this process need fast filling with great energy. This is achieved by gate velocities that result in dispersed metal droplets or atomized jet metal streams that rapidly fill the thin walls. Figure 6.18 illustrates an atomized jet stream. The parameters that control...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.t68410029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
... the hydrogen, causing the aluminum oxide to float on the surface. The oxide is skimmed off using a flux. Additionally, the melt passes through a filter to catch the oxide and other impurities. Figures 4.8 and 4.9 are two versions of a filter box positioned between a jet-melting furnace (jet melter...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... usually involve liquid-to-solid transformations without reactions; the powders are formed by spraying a melt using gas or water jets, centrifugal force, plasma spraying, or vapor condensation, proving ideal for ferrous alloys, copper alloys, and elemental powders. Table 2.1 provides a contrast...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... in the early 1950s, titanium began to be used extensively for military aviation purposes, particularly in high-performance jets, the most notable being the Black Bird supersonic spy plane. The Department of Defense realized the strategic importance of the metal and supported early efforts of commercialization...