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Iron-carbon eutectoid reaction

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... microstructure eutectoid microstructure hypoeutectoid microstructure hypereutectoid microstructure bainitic microstructure martensitic microstructure time-temperature-transformation diagrams iron-carbon system SINCE OVER 80% by weight of all metals in use are iron and steel alloys, it is appropriate...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... called the eutectic point in water-salt, a similar maximum lowering occurs in iron-carbon, but here it is called the eutectoid point and also the pearlite point. The eutectoid point represents the temperature and composition on the phase diagram where a eutectoid reaction occurs, that is, a reaction...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... Abstract This chapter discusses the characteristics of eutectoid transformations, a type of solid-state transformation associated with invariant reactions, focusing on the iron-carbon system of steel. It describes the compositions, characteristics, and properties of ferrite, eutectoid...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... minimum use of risers (which are reservoirs of molten metal to feed the casting during solidification, because most metals shrink during solidification). To control the properties of cast iron, it is necessary to control the formation of the carbon-rich phase (the eutectic reaction) and the formation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560361
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... iron suggested in Fig. 12.1 (Part 3) (i) . The presence of carbon in iron, as in a steel, does not significantly influence the oxidation when the carbon is in solution—that is, when oxidation occurs above the A 3 (or A cm ) temperature. Some of the consequences of the presence of carbon as...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
.... The reason why they cannot be simple diffusive processes is that although carbon atoms still have sufficient mobility at the temperatures concerned for diffusion to occur, iron atoms do not. A shear mechanism consequently is also required to rearrange the iron atoms, at least at the start of the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
.... The first effect in an oxidizing atmosphere at temperature is the formation of iron oxide on the surface of the casting and the removal of exposed graphite by oxidation to carbon monoxide. A surface layer of metal can gradually become decarburized by the diffusion and reaction of the carbon with...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... Abstract This chapter examines the structural changes that occur in high-carbon steels during austenitization. It describes the effect of heating time and temperature on the production of austenite and the associated transformation of ferrite and cementite in eutectoid, hypoeutectoid, and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... transformation, the simplest approach is by means of a time-temperature-transformation (TTT) curve for some constant iron-carbon composition. Such a curve is presented in Fig. 6 for a 0.77% (eutectoid) carbon steel. TTT curves are also known as “S” curves because the principal part of the curve is shaped...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... iron-carbon base-alloys. In this chapter, the topics covered include martensitic structures in steels, martensitic structures in nonferrous alloys, shape-memory alloys, and bainitic structures in steels. Equilibrium cooling rates might be approximated by a very large piece of...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... general overview of the factors influencing corrosion in iron and steel and a brief discussion of corrosion-resistant coatings. mill products hot rolling cold rolling forging extruding drawing electric arc furnace oxygen furnace plain carbon steels low-carbon steels medium-carbon plain...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Transmission electron micrograph showing cementite precipitated on dislocations in 0.08C-0.63Mn steel aged 115 h at 97 °C (207 °F). Courtesy of J.E. Indacochea The eutectoid region of the iron-carbon equilibrium diagram ( Fig. 3 ) is at 0.77 wt% C, where three equilibrium phases (austenite with...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... Abstract This chapter discusses the composition and structure of low-carbon irons and steels, particularly those used in the production of hot-rolled strip. It describes the manufacturing process from the production of ingots to coiling, and it explains how finishing and coiling temperatures...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... Abstract This chapter covers the fundamentals of heat treating. It begins with a review of the composition, classification, and properties of iron and steel, the phases of the iron-carbon system, and the basic types of heat treatments. It then discusses the topics of hardness and hardenability...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... decomposition of cementite is accomplished by burning out carbon in an oxidizing atmosphere according to the following reactions: (Eq 24.4) Fe 3 C → 3 Fe + C (Eq 24.5) CO 2 + C → 2CO The heat treatment time to form malleable cast iron is long, normally 2 to 5 days, and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... Pearlite is the name given to the two-phase constituent of ferrite and cementite that results during slow cooling from this reaction. In fact, many steels and cast irons contain pearlite in their microstructure. An iron-carbon alloy containing 0.77% C is a pure eutectoid alloy; that is, it transforms to...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... carbon from the surface of a steel or cast iron component. Many times during heat treatment, the surface of a part loses carbon by a reaction with oxygen contained in the heat treating furnace atmosphere (oxygen is present in air, carbon dioxide, and water vapor). Hydrogen can also decarburize steel or...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
..., defined on cooling as a liquid phase forming two solid phases. At 727 °C (1335 °F): γ-iron = α ferrite + Fe 3 C, a eutectoid reaction, defined on cooling as a solid phase forming two other solid phases. With the addition of other alloying components to the iron-carbon system, under equilibrium...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... longer and allows the worker to wipe off excess flow from the joint. Finally, for joints that will be exposed to moderately high temperatures, the high-temperature solder may be the best choice. The fact that steel can be hardened is a direct result of the eutectoid reaction in iron-carbon alloys...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... labeled α and δ are body-centered cubic. Iron carbide (Fe 3 C) contains 6.67% C. Source: Adapted from Ref 7.1 If iron containing 0.77% C is cooled slowly through the eutectoid temperature of 730 °C (1340 °F), the eutectoid reaction, γ → α + Fe 3 C, occurs with both the ferrite (α) and the...