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Internal oxidation

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... (at oxide) 0.24 0.26 0.3 4615 (b) Case martensite 0.2 0.51 0.4 Martensite (at oxide) 0.1 0.22 0.3 (a) 0.92% Mn, 0.5% Cr, 0.11% Si, 0.38% Ni, 0.16% Mo. (b) 0.52% Mn, 0.12% Cr, 0.24% Si, 1.75% Ni, 0.54% Mo. Source: Ref 20 Electron probe analysis of certain internal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
...-carburized parts. Grinding, besides restoring precision, removes carbide films, internal oxidation, and high-temperature transformation products. Shot peening strengthens component surfaces and induces a stress state that increases fatigue resistance. This chapter describes both processes as well as roller...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... due to abnormal growth during the austenitizing process, Etched: S. Bechet and L. Beaujurda. Original magnification: 500× Fig. 60 Correlation of calculated total oxidation potential (TOP) and average depth of internal oxidation Fig. 2 Effected of stress raisers on stress...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
...% Ni, 8% Cr, 4% Al; and 5: 98% Ni, 2% Al. Areas 1, 4, and 5 were essentially nickel oxides, area 2 was nickel sulfide, and area 3 was pure nickel. Courtesy of Haynes International, Inc. Fig. 9.3 Relative hot corrosion resistance of experimental alloys obtained from burner rig tests at 950...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
...Abstract Abstract The inspection of castings normally involves checking for shape and dimensions, coupled with aided and unaided visual inspection for external discontinuities and surface quality. This chapter discusses methods for determining surface quality, internal discontinuities...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... Fig. 2 The iron-chromium-oxygen phase diagram at 1300 °C. Source: Ref 5 Fig. 3 Parabolic rate constants for the growth of several oxides. Source: Ref 6 Fig. 9 Quasi-steady-state approximation of the moving boundary problem of internal oxidation. Counterdiffusion of B...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
.... Specimens were cathodically descaled for measurement of the metal loss. The average metal affected is the sum of the metal loss and the depth of internal attack. The depth of internal attack was measured by metallography. Source: Ref 68 Comparative oxidation resistance of various alloys in flowing air...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170596
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... binary alloys of silver and cadmium, then converting the cadmium into an oxide by internal oxidation. Contact materials with refractory or oxide constituents are described in the section “ Composite Materials ” in this article. This section describes the effects of specific alloying elements...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... of nitridation, and total depth of attack after testing at 980 °C (1800 °F) for 1000 h with 30 min thermal cycling Alloy Weight change, mg/cm 2 Metal loss, mm Internal oxidation, mm Internal nitridation, mm Total attack (a) , mm 230 –6.8 0.07 0.09 0.17 0.24 617 –80.1 0.17 0.07...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560361
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
...) Austenitized at 950 °C, cooled slowly at ~100 °C/h, austenitized at 950 °C, water quenched, tempered at 175 °C. Bisulfite. 1000×. Fig. 12.5 (Part 1) Internal oxidation. 0.4% C (0.41C-0.24Si-0.70Mn, wt%) normalized. (a) Austenitized at 950 °C, cooled slowly at ~100 °C/h. Picral. 1000×. (b...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770037
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... may be tolerable if it is partial decarburization and penetrates no deeper than any HTTP associated with the surface internal oxidation and it is within any specification for decarburization. In well-run carburizing and hardening facilities, the decarburization of case-hardened surfaces does...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
.... This group of alloys could then be called NiO-formers. (d) For alloys with higher chromium and aluminum concentrations, the subscale becomes continuous, but aluminum is still oxidized internally. (e) For alloys with smaller aluminum concentrations, the continuous external scale becomes enriched in Cr 2 O 3...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... oxidized, it will restrict the ammonia flow. Internal oxidation of the process gas-delivery system results from the incorrect pipe material selection. Check also that the inlet pipe to the process chamber is clean and clear. If the support fixture for the work is made from a low-alloy material...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... and in sodium and potassium hydroxide, but it is susceptible to corrosion in mineral acids. It resists oxidation at room temperature, but is susceptible to attack by sulfur. In addition, oxygen diffuses more freely through solid silver than through any metal. This fact has made it feasible to internally oxidize...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
.... 3.30 Microstructure of an AISI/SAE 1045 steel billet showing (a) a large oxidized crack in the decarburized zone and (b) internal oxidation along a small crack (see arrow in a). 2% nital and 4% picral etch. (a) 32× and (b) 500× Fig. 3.31 Microstructure of an improperly carbonitrided AISI...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
..., thereby affecting its service life. The microstructural features referred to are internal oxidation, decarburization, free carbides, retained austenite, and microcracks in the martensite. Further modifications to the martensite in particular can be effected by tempering, and the proportions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.9781627083041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410499
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
.... , and Festanova A.I. , Internal Oxidation during Case Hardening of Steels in Endothermic Atmospheres , Met. Sci. Heat Treat. , No. 3 . 1967 , p 157 – 161 10.1007/BF00653130 21.41 Chatterjee-Fischer R. , Internal Oxidation during Carburizing and Heat Treating , Metall. Trans. A , Vol 9A...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... rate of 10 –6 s –1 at 800 °C (1470 °F) in air. Source: Ref 1 Fig. 14.2 Rehealed oxide-scale crack on alloy 800H during deformation at the strain rate of 10 –8 s –1 at 800 °C (1470 °F) in air. Source: Ref 2 Fig. 14.3 Depth of internal corrosion penetration for Fe-18Cr-0.8Al...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... the weld zone, and the non-metallic inclusions present in the zone are small (see Fig. 11.9bB ; compare with Fig. 11.9dB ). The decarburized layer and the inclusions that it contains are again the result of decarburization and internal oxidation of the weld surfaces during heating, which is always...