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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
..., microporosity, macro- and microsegregation, and hot cracking, as well as the effects of solidification and remelting on castings, ingots, and continuous cast products. It explains how to determine where defects originate in continuous casters and how to control alumina, sulfide, and nitride inclusions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
...Abstract Abstract Porosity in aluminum is caused by the precipitation of hydrogen from liquid solution or by shrinkage during solidification, and more usually by a combination of these effects. Nonmetallic inclusions entrained before solidification influence porosity formation and mechanical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Inclusions and chemical segregation are factors in many process-induced failures involving steel parts. Inclusions are nonmetallic compounds introduced during production; segregation is a type of chemical partitioning that occurs during solidification. This chapter discusses the origins...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... with a water solution of picric acid with a surfactant agent (sodium tridecyl benzene sulfonate), proportions not informed (reactant is similar to Bechet-Beaujard). As in the case of Oberhoffer etchant ( Fig. 8.38, in Chapter 8, “Solidification, Segregation, and Nonmetallic Inclusions,” in this book...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... of the principal intermetallic phases is also covered. In addition, the chapter provides information on carbides, nitrides, precipitation hardening, and inclusions. stainless steel thermodynamics ferrite austenite martensite intermetallic phase carbides nitrides precipitation hardening inclusions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses the steps in the primary processing of stainless steels: melting, refining, remelting, casting, and hot rolling. It provides information of the major categories of defects in hot rolled stainless steels, namely hot mill defects, inclusion-related defects...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... Formed in liquid steel after deoxidation Calcium treated, aluminum killed Calcium aluminate Formed by reaction with alumina, liquid inclusion Aluminum killed, with residual magnesium Magnesium aluminate Formed by reaction with alumina, solid inclusion Titanium treated, aluminum killed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... Unrefined; excess carbide avoided if combined with diffusion treatment; austenite retention reduced; distortion minimized Unrefined but hardened Source: Ref 1 Influence of inclusion size on inclusion numbers in a hypothetical steel with 1 ppm oxygen and 1 ppm sulfur as spherical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... section. Transmission electron micrograph. 20,000×. Fig. 6.17 (Part 1) Manganese sulfide inclusions in cast steels. (a) and (b) 0.15% C (0.14C-0.29Si-0.31Mn-0.001 Al, wt%). As cast; incompletely deoxidized with silicon alone. Etchant: nil. (a) 200×. (b) Scanning electron micrograph...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
...) Lamellar tear along a central segregate containing numerous elongated manganese sulfide inclusions. Unetched. 100×. (c) Lamellar tear initiated at groups of angular oxide inclusions. 1% nital. 250×. (d) Semikilled carbon-manganese steel. Testpiece (cut in short transverse direction) containing large...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... The complexity of semiconductor chips and their packages has continuously challenged the known methods to analyze them. With larger laminates and the inclusion of multiple stacked die, methods to analyze modern semiconductor products are being pushed toward their limits to support these 2.5D and 3D packages...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... of the native oxides that form on the surface of beryllium and their ability to withstand acids, bases, and corrosive agents found in rain and seawater. It explains how carbides, inclusions, ions, and impurities contribute to corrosion damage, particularly pitting, and how corrosion reduces the ductility...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270150
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... originating from nonmetallic inclusions in the blade root. compressor blades energy-dispersive X-ray spectrophotometry fatigue fracture SEM fractography visual examination Summary Background Visual Examination of General Physical Features Testing Procedure and Results A compressor...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... initiating at the corner of the inner rim near an inclusion. The report recommends the use of a cleaner material and more carefully controlling case hardening process. aircraft engine energy-dispersive X-ray spectrophotometry fatigue crack initiation fractography gears visual examination...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... alloys. The following section provides information on the residual stresses and distortion that remain after welding. The focus then shifts to distortion control of weldments. Inclusions and cracking are discussed in detail. The chapter also discusses the causes for reduced fatigue strength...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
...Inclusion rating in a boiler tube sample Table 5.1 Inclusion rating in a boiler tube sample Type A Type B Type C Type D Thin Thick/heavy Thin Thick/heavy Thin Thick/heavy Thin Thick/heavy Inclusion rating … 2.5 … … … … 1.5 1.0 Comparative data...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
.... This is followed by a general description of the machining behavior of the stainless steel families, namely ferritic, martensitic, austenitic, precipitation hardening, duplex, and super stainless steels. The beneficial effect of controlled inclusions is then discussed. The chapter ends with a section providing...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... how patterns, molds, and shells are produced, discusses the practice of directional solidification, and examines an assortment of turbine components cast from nickel- and cobalt-base alloys. The chapter also addresses casting problems such as inclusions, porosity, distortion, core shift, and leaching...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... on spray forming and consolidation by atmospheric pressure, and includes a section on powder-based disk components, where it discusses the general advantages of P/M as well as the effects of inclusions, carbon contamination, and the formation of oxide and carbide films due to prior particle boundary...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... the relationship between cooling rate, grain size, grain shape, and phase structures. It explains how the transition from liquid to solid state creates the conditions under which microsegregation occurs, and how it impacts the distribution of alloying elements, carbides, and inclusions. The link between...