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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpclas.t64560263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-353-9
... source as Fig. 8-45a ) Abstract Abstract Structural steels are used for components such as I-beams and automobile frames. This chapter focuses on processing these steels to attain a fine primary ferrite grain size to develop high strength. It first reviews the concepts and principles...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... as well as assembly errors, abnormal operating conditions, and inadequate maintenance. It also describes the precise usage of terms such as defect, flaw, imperfection, and discontinuity. failure analysis hip implants I beams manufacturing defects piston heads porcelain insulators quill shafts...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... (concave) side of a member under a bending load, such as a thin-wall tube or a flange of a channel or I-beam section. A vital fact must be recognized in considering a part that has buckled, or in preventing buckling: the load at which a component buckles does not depend on the strength of the material...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... gate from the shallow trench insulator (STI) region and causing the surface to introduce its own artifacts) Sample loads into FIB chamber. Set the eucentric height and beam alignment. Drive to the AOI and tilt the sample perpendicular to the ion beam (I-beam). Under appropriate I-beam...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... the properties about both axes that are obtainable in the box section, but the values are equivalent to the I-beam section in one direction. In the other direction, the U-section is superior to the I-beam. The U-section can be designed with the radius equal to 1 inch, or with the radius equal to the wall section...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... into two or more pieces after it has been resting on a floor, bench, or table under no external load. Yet this is not an uncommon situation and is within the experience of many persons who have worked with metals. A spectacular example was that of a 40-ft-long I-beam that was lying on a shop floor...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... 6-8) σ Elastic = M ( h / 2 ) I =   M S where S is the section modulus and I is the moment of inertia. The elastically computed outer fiber stress at the lower bound plastic collapse load is 1.5σ yp . Hence, the beam will become fully plastic at a moment...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... R.J. and Young W.C. , Formulas for Stress and Strain , 5th ed. , McGraw-Hill , 1975 1.7. Timoshenko S. , Strength of Materials, Part I: Elementary Theory and Problems , 2nd ed. , Van Nostrand D. , 1941 1.8. Timoshenko S. , Strength of Materials, Part II...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... are classified as either hot rolled or cold rolled steels. Hot rolled grades are somewhat less expensive because they are finished hot but they have rough surfaces. They are used where surface appearance is not important, such as for I-beams and structural plate. Cold rolled steels are first hot rolled...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... planes in hexagonal crystal systems are identified in a slightly different manner. Besides the h , k , and l indices, there is a fourth index, i , that is used for hexagonal systems. In the Miller-Bravais system, the three axes in the basal plane are denoted by a 1 , a 2 , and a 3 indices...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 23 January 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stemsem.9781627082921
EISBN: 978-1-62708-292-1
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... of an x-ray produced by a transition with initial ionization energy Ei will be: R max = R ( E o ) − R ( E i ) For example, R(E i ) for the Si K-shell is R KO (E i =1.84 keV) = 0.09 micron. Therefore a 5 keV electron beam will penetrate 0.41 micron into Si...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090367
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... obtained from V-K I curves 3.1 × 10 −9 44 7.5 × 10 −10 11 (c) (c) Bolt-loaded double-beam, pop-in stress; average growth 0–15 days 3.4 × 10 −9 48 4 × 10 −10 6 4 × 10 −10 6 Bolt-loaded double beam, pop-in stress; average growth 0–42 days 2.8 × 10 −9 40 4 × 10 −10 6 2...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110196
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
...: (2) Δ V = Δ R I C I S (3) Δ I = − ( Δ R I C / R I C 2 ) V S where Δ R IC is the resistance variation and R IC is the IC resistance, I S is the current source and V S the voltage source. The Seebeck effect is based on the generation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... weldability and toughness are not required. Steel Castings Compared to Other Processes Weldments are produced from ingots which are rolled into common shapes such as bar, plate, “Ibeams, tube, etc. Advantages: Mill steel is less expensive than cast or forged parts. There may not be a die...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... relationships on radiographic image from point sources and actual radiation source. (a) Image size. (b) Image distortion. (c) Image overlap for point sources of radiation. (d) Degree of image unsharpness from an actual radiation source. See text for discussion. L o = source-to-object distance; L i...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
...: Ref 14 Fig. 18 Rolling of an I-beam. Source: Ref 15 Fig. 19 Planetary mill. Source: Ref 14 Fig. 20 (a) Schematic of four-stand mill. (b) Finishing stands of a 2130 mm (84 in.) hot strip mill. Courtesy of Mesta Machine Company. Source: Ref 16 Fig. 21...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
.... For the purposes of this paper, I will discuss the history of training activities in the failure/product analysis discipline, and describe where this area is heading. Training for design, packaging, processing, reliability, and test, although different in content, is similar in scope, since today’s semiconductor...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... E. I. Jr. , “ Beam-Based Defect Localization Techniques ,” in Microelectronics Failure Analysis Desk Reference , Sixth Edition , Ross R.J. editor, copyright 2011 ASM international . [11] Dickson K. , et al. , “ Electron Beam Absorbed Current as a Means of Locating Metal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780216
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... as the limiting case of an elliptical notch as the notch tip radius approaches 0. For such a geometry, the stresses perpendicular to the crack line approach infinity at the crack tip. Their variation as a function of distance from the crack tip is expressed as: σ 11 = K I 2 π r...