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Hydroxides

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... of corrosion tests in molten sodium hydroxide at 900 °C (1650 °F) for 84 h Table 15.9 Results of corrosion tests in molten sodium hydroxide at 900 °C (1650 °F) for 84 h Alloy Weight change, mg/cm 2 304 Disintegrated 316 Disintegrated 800 +60 800H +65 556 Disintegrated...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
...Abstract Abstract This chapter reviews the basic chemistry of beryllium metals and compounds, including beryllium hydroxide, beryllium carbonates, beryllium fluoride, and beryllium chloride. It discusses the uses as well as application challenges of various forms of beryllium and includes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the synthesis of important beryllium compounds, including beryllium borides, beryllium carbide, beryllium carbonates, beryllium carboxylates, beryllium halides, beryllium hydride, beryllium hydroxide, beryllium nitrate, beryllium nitride, beryllium...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
..., the elementary electrochemical corrosion circuit, using it to explain how electric potential differences drive the corrosion process and how corrosion rates vary in proportion to current density. The chapter concludes with a discussion on the importance of corrosion products, such as oxides and hydroxides...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
...Abstract Abstract This chapter addresses the issue of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) in carbon and low-alloy steels. It discusses crack initiation, propagation, and fracture in aqueous chloride, hydrogen sulfide, sulfuric acid, hydroxide, ammonia, nitrate, ethanol, methanol, and hydrogen gas...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... of the usual fusion reagents from analytical chemistry have been successfully used for the decomposition of the ore. The reactants hydrofluoric acid and sodium or potassium hydroxide dissolve beryl ore, but the chemical consumption by the silica component is too expensive. Also included among the rejected...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... to overheating. 7.2.6 Sodium Sodium exists in water in its ionic form as Na + ions. Sodium ions combine with hydroxide ions to form sodium hydroxide (i.e., caustic soda). Sodium hydroxide attacks the highly stressed areas of boiler tubes and steam turbines, leading to stress-corrosion cracking failure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
..., which is formed when zinc is placed in sulfuric acid, or corrosion products can be insoluble compounds, such as iron oxide or hydroxide. The presence of corrosion products is one way corrosion can sometimes be detected (e.g., rust). Tendency to Form Insoluble Corrosion Products The conductivity...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
.... colorimetric methods fluorometric methods gravimetric methods polarographic methods radiometric methods spectrometric methods volumetric methods BERYLLIUM belongs to the ammonium hydroxide analytical group. Beryllium is completely precipitated by ammonia, along with iron, aluminum, and chromium...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... concentrations of 1 (10 0 ), 10 –2 , 10 –4 , and 10 –6 g/L. In the presence of water or noncomplexing solutions whose pH is approximately 4 to 6, beryllium can become covered with a layer of oxide or hydroxide. Figure 25.2 , which is deduced from Fig. 25.1 , represents the theoretical conditions...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... pulping liquor 71 (160) 0.015 Ammonium carbamate 50 100 (212) Nil Ammonium chloride Saturated 100 (212) <0.013 Ammonium chlorate 300 g/L 50 (122) 0.003 Ammonium fluoride 10 Room 0.102 Ammonium hydroxide 28 Room 0.003 28 100 (212) Nil Ammonium nitrate 28 Boiling...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... procedure, gemstone emerald was finely pulverized before melting with three times its mass of potassium hydroxide. The cooled melt was dissolved in water and the silica removed by filtration. The filtrate was diluted with potassium hydroxide solution and boiled to precipitate beryllium hydroxide...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... effective. In some cases, for example, adding sodium hydroxide pellets to water, such as in the alkaline sodium picrate etchant, produces an exothermic reaction (heat generated). The heat is more uniformly distributed if the solution is stirred. In many cases, a mildly heated solution hastens...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... corrosion in the presence of ammonia. Chloride ions form an environment that leads to stress corrosion of many metals. Rust is ferric oxide, Fe 2 O 3 , and ferric hydroxide, Fe(OH) 3 . Ferrous ion, Fe 2+ , is soluble, but further oxidation produces ferric ions, 3Fe 2+ + 6OH − → 3Fe(OH) 3 + 3H 2 O...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... • • Ammonium fluosilicate • Ammonium hydroxide • • • Ammonium nitrate • Aniline • Barium chloride • • Barium nitrate • Calcium bromide • • Calcium...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230493
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... by-product feeds composition are shown in Table 27.2 . The copper oxide and hydroxide represent the largest single feed, followed by the furnace dross, mill scale, and melting skull streams. During processing of wrought beryllium-copper alloys, parts are chemically milled (pickled) to improve surface finish...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
...). There can also be formation of a compound Fe(OH) 2 (i.e., ferrous hydroxide) in the presence of moisture. The composition of an oxide layer varies considerably for carbon and low-alloy steel pipes and tubes with less than 3% Cr, depending on the temperature. For example, below 570 °C (1060 °F...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... grinding machines were partially or wholly destroyed when the oil ignited. When titanium was ground with aluminum oxide belts, a water lubricant was less effective than air. The water reacted with the aluminum oxide to form a weak hydroxide that proved ineffective as a grinding lubricant. A 5% aqueous...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
.... Important Factors for Successful Results Wash all grease and oils from parts to be nitrided. Oils may contain sulfur, which is detrimental and will reduce efficiency. If work is washed in an alkaline cleaner containing sodium hydroxide or similar alkali, the work should be rinsed in hot distilled water...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
...). (a) Corrosion by dissolution. (b) Corrosion by gasification. (c) Passivation by oxide or hydroxide layer. (d) Passivation by hydroxide layer. (e) Immunity Fig. 11 Potential-pH diagrams for iron and aluminum Fig. 12 Potential-pH diagrams for iron and titanium Fig. 17 Activation...