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Hydrogen reformers

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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 4.8 Extensive aluminum and chromium nitrides formed in the vicinity of creep cracks in the bend section of an alloy 800H pigtail in another hydrogen reformer. Source: Ref 34 More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 4.7 Acicular aluminum nitrides and blocky chromium nitrides, which formed in the vicinity of the creep cracks in alloy 800HT pigtail in a hydrogen reformer, were not dissolved into solution after the sample was resolution annealed at 1150 °C (2100 °F) for 1 h. Source: Ref 34 More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
..., and environment determine whether or not stress-corrosion cracking develops in a susceptible alloy. It also provides stress-corrosion ratings for many alloys, tempers, and product forms and includes information on hydrogen-induced cracking. aluminum alloys crack susceptibility hydrogen-induced cracking...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... 17.3 Hydrogen Attack in Petroleum Refining In petroleum refining, some refinery equipment, such as reactors in hydrotreating, reforming, and hydrocracking units, is exposed to a high-temperature, high-pressure hydrogen atmosphere. Hydrogen attack is potentially a very serious materials issue...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
..., sulfide stress cracking, hydrogen-induced cracking, stress-oriented hydrogen-induced cracking, hydrogen embrittlement cracking, stress-corrosion cracking, velocity-accelerated corrosion, erosion-corrosion, and corrosion control is provided. petroleum refineries petrochemical plants materials...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... the corrosion rates of steels and austenitic stainless steels as a function of hydrogen sulfide concentration for a hydrodesulfurization equipment at 415 °C (780 °F) and 27.2 atm (400 psig) ( Fig. 7.16 ) and for a catalytic-reformer equipment at 510 °C (950 °F) and 27.2 atm (400 psig) ( Fig. 7.17 ). Fig...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
...Abstract Abstract Porosity in aluminum is caused by the precipitation of hydrogen from liquid solution or by shrinkage during solidification, and more usually by a combination of these effects. Nonmetallic inclusions entrained before solidification influence porosity formation and mechanical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... overhead X X Pre-fractionator overhead X X Effluent X X Debutanizer overhead X X Depropanizer overhead X X Hydrogen stripper feed X … Hydrogen scrubber water … X Source: ( Ref 2 ) The refining of crude oil into useful fuels and other products produces a number...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.t60490329
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
... in the following sections. Most of the damage mechanisms described are equally applicable to reactor vessels in low-or intermediate-pressure hydrogen service (e.g., catalytic reformers). These vessels, made of 1Cr-½Mo and 1¼Cr-½Mo steels, operate at higher temperatures, and creep-damage mechanisms assume greater...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... at 870 °C (1600 °F) in less than 1000 h. Original magnification, 500×. Source: Ref 30 Hoffman and Lai ( Ref 34 ) investigated an alloy 800HT pigtail that suffered cracking after about 7.5 years of service in a hydrogen reformer. The pigtail section, which was exposed to air at approximately 850...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... as hydrogen, stress-corrosion cracking, liquid metal embrittlement, and surface treatments. corrosion resistance crevice corrosion hydrogen embrittlement localized corrosion stress-corrosion cracking titanium alloys uniform corrosion Corrosion is a process that results in the degradation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... that fracture occurs via an embrittled surface layer, either an oxide or a porous layer formed by selective dissolution of magnesium or aluminum. The crack then becomes blunted and stops when it enters the ductile substrate. The process repeats after the film reforms. Hydrogen Embrittlement Liu ( Ref...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
.... At reasonable hydrogen levels, void compression and the redistribution or repartition of precipitated hydrogen through HIP results in essentially closed porosity. Extensive reheat treatment at ambient pressure can, in the worst cases, result in the reformation of internal porosity. In the case of castings...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... with the ferritic solidification reduce the likelihood of solidification cracking (hot cracking). Hydrogen cracking (cold cracking) resistance is also good due to the high hydrogen solubility in the austenite and the high percentage of austenite in the matrix. Nevertheless, hydrogen cracking can occur in duplex...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
..., hardened by quenching, and then tempered for increased ductility and toughness. This chapter provides a basic understanding of grade designations, properties, corrosion resistance, and general welding considerations of martensitic stainless steels. It also discusses the causes for hydrogen-induced cracking...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.t60490001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
... ) Operation Temperature range Pressure range °C °F MPa psi Catalytic cracking 449 to 565 840 to 1050 0.05 to 3.1 7 to 450 Hydrocracking 205 to 482 400 to 900 0.7 to 28 100 to 4000 Catalytic reforming 427 to 538 800 to 1000 0.35 to 5.2 50 to 750 Hydrogen treating 205 to 427...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... hydrogen 1.1 The Phenomenon of Stress-Corrosion Cracking Stress-corrosion cracking is a delayed failure process. That is, cracks initiate and propagate at a slow rate (e.g., 10 −9 to 10 −6 m/s) until the stresses in the remaining ligament of metal exceed the fracture strength. The sequence...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Oxide (?) Anhydrated ammonia Nitride CO/CO 2 /H 2 O Carbide CS 2 /H 2 O Carbide Titanium alloys Chloride Hydride Aluminum alloys, steels Various media Near-surface hydrogen The Phenomenon of SCC Stress-corrosion cracking is a delayed failure process. That is, cracks...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
..., and poultice corrosion; galvanic corrosion; erosion-corrosion, including cavitation erosion and fretting corrosion; intergranular corrosion, including sensitization and exfoliation; dealloying; environmentally assisted cracking, including stress-corrosion cracking, corrosion fatigue, and hydrogen damage...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
...) corrosion, localized corrosion, galvanic corrosion, intergranular corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, hydrogen damage, and erosion-corrosion. In addition, the economic importance of cost-effective materials selection is also considered. materials selection corrosion control general corrosion...