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Hydrocarbons

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Published: 30 April 2020
Fig. 3.7 Melting temperature variation for straight hydrocarbons. At room temperature, they move from gases to liquids to solids as the number of carbons increases. Paraffin wax (between 20 and 40 carbon atoms) is a solid at room temperature, as is polyethylene (more than 40 carbon atoms More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 7.15 Effect of sulfur content in hydrocarbon streams on corrosion rates predicted by the modified McConomy curves in the 290–400 °C (550–750 °F) range. Source: Ref 38 More
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Published: 01 December 2003
Fig. 13 Mer chemical structure of representative hydrocarbon thermo-plastic polymers (see Table 6 for glass-transition temperatures) More
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Published: 01 December 2015
Fig. 48 Erosion damage produced by entrained particles in a hydrocarbon process stream (a) Loss in wall thickness. (b) Erosion features on inside surface of pipe More
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Published: 01 December 2015
Fig. 50 Real-time process control data from a predominantly hydrocarbon stream with 1 to 2 vol% corrosive water. Simultaneous measurement of chemical feed and corrosion monitoring of carbon steel and type 304L and 316L stainless steels. Source: Ref 202 More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... environments. One environment consists of sulfur vapor, hydrocarbon streams, H2S, and H2-H2S gas; sulfides are the only corrosion products that form under these conditions. Another environment consists of H2, CO, CO2, H2S, and other gases, causing the formation of oxides as well as sulfides in most alloys...
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 9.14 Structure of silicones. The small open circles represent either CH 3 groups or other hydrocarbons. Source: Ref 9.1 . More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 7.14 Modified McConomy curves providing predicted corrosion rates as a function of temperatures for various steels in a liquid hydrocarbon stream containing 0.6% S. Source: Ref 38 More
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Published: 01 December 2003
Fig. 19 The differential scanning calorimetry thermogram representing the reference clip material, exhibiting an endothermic transition characteristic of the melting of a nylon 6/6 resin. The results also showed a second melting transition attributed to a hydrocarbon-based impact modifier. More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... corrosive environments also exist in refining processes. Foremost is corrosion caused by organic acids at high temperatures, commonly termed naphthenic acid corrosion . Sulfide and other sulfur species contained in the hydrocarbon stream can also be corrosive at high concentrations and at high temperatures...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... with the hydrocarbons, would not have been used due to economics. Perhaps entire reservoirs would have been abandoned because of the high cost of corrosion. Inhibitors also allowed the injection and production of high volumes of corrosive water resulting from the secondary-recovery concept of waterflooding. Tertiary...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780146
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... to 140,000 or more. An average molecular weight of 5000 for HDPE can be cited. The terminating ends of a polymer also have different chemical structure than that of the repeating mers. For example, the terminal groups in HDPE and other alkane polymers (saturated hydrocarbons) are methyl (CH 3...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
.... Ammonia is considered to be the most readily and actively available source of nitrogen for the process and is blended with the other process gas supplies of carbon (from a hydrocarbon gas) and oxygen from other sources. As in gas nitriding, the cracked nascent ammonia gas will dissociate at the steel...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htgpge.t67320171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-347-8
... and hydrocarbons. The process primarily imparts a hard, wear-resistant case. A carbonitrided case has better hardenability than a carburized case. Also, the presence of N 2 in the case, as in nitriding, increases its hardness. Most carbonitriding is done between 770 and 890 °C (1425 and 1625 °F) for gears...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... of the carburizing temperature and time, type of cycle, carbon potential of the furnace atmosphere, and the original composition of the steel. The source of carbon is a carbon-rich furnace atmosphere produced either from gaseous hydrocarbons, such as methane (CH 4 ), propane (C 3 H 3 ), and butane (C 4 H 10...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... and organic acids (e.g., hydrochloric, HCl, hydrofluoric, HF, formic, HCOOH, and others) that are injected down the well and into the formation to increase formation permeability for better flow of hydrocarbons. Some of these fluids are inherently corrosive; others are potentially corrosive only when...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... a shutdown, corrosion can be caused by pockets of water left in the process units and associated piping. Most petroleum refining and petrochemical plant operations involve flammable hydrocarbon streams, highly toxic or explosive gases, and strong acids or caustics that are often at elevated temperatures...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... in a 102 mm (4 in.) ASTM A53 pipe that was used to transfer a mixture of chlorinated hydrocarbons and water. During construction, the pipeline was fabricated with E7010-Al welding electrodes (see Table 1 for the compositions of all materials discussed in these examples). Initial weld failures...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... and by Nitriding in Ammonia Atmospheres with Hydrocarbon Additions , Härt.-Tech. Mitt. , Vol 20 (No. 1) , April 1965 , p 41 – 49 (BISI translation 4720) 5. Davis J.R. , Ed., Surface Engineering for Corrosion and Wear Resistance , ASM International , 2001 , p 191 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900231
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
...-to-hydrogen ratio by volume to a ratio of approximately 5:1 and up to 7:1. This will result in surface hardness values of up to 700 HV (59 HRC). As previously stated, the carbon source can come from the steel itself or by the addition of a hydrocarbon gas to the process gas flow. In the case of a plain low...