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Heat distributing units

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Published: 01 March 2006
Fig. 18 Schematic of a typical installation for high-volume batch quenching of carburized or hardened parts on trays. Directional vanes in the oil stream distribute the oil flow uniformly. Unit contains combined heating and cooling elements and provision for blanketing the surface of the oil More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
... is a complex one, and it becomes difficult, if not impossible, to get a complete analytical solution of the differential equation of heat transfer. The temperature increase and temperature distribution during extrusion have been investigated by many researchers ( Ref 1 – 5 ) since 1960. Approximate but useful...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tm.t52320013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-357-7
... according to heating at (b) constant pressure and (c) constant volume. Fig. 2.3 Enthalpy according to grain-boundary or interface tension, peculiar to microstructures. Because the force (N) = the momentum change per unit time (kg · m/s 2 ) according to particle dynamics, the pressure ( P...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpclas.t64560001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-353-9
... (e.g., bars, plates) are presented. This information, coupled with the hardenability information, allows estimating the hardness distribution which is developed by the hardening heat treatment. Tempering is reviewed since most steels require subsequent tempering (mainly for improved toughness...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
... furnace with controlled atmosphere, an atomizing chamber, and a powder-collection system ( Fig. 6.1 ). All the parts must be vacuum tight. Fig. 6.1 Inert gas atomizer for induction heating with ceramic or graphite crucible. Courtesy of Impact Innovations GmbH Melting of the feedstock can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
.... The chapter reviews the mechanistic basis for induction heating and provides an example of eddy-current distribution in a solid bar. The chapter defines two important concepts in the technology of induction heating: equivalent resistance and electrical efficiency. The chapter concludes with a discussion...
Book Chapter

By L. L. Sparks
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1983
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mlt.t62860047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-348-5
... the measurement of specific heat at low temperatures. electron distribution heat capacity lattice vibration spectrum phase transitions thermodynamics specific heat 2.1 Introduction Specific heat is a fundamental property that relates the total heat per unit mass added to a system...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... microstructure solid solutions steel STEEL CAN BE processed to produce a great variety of microstructures and properties. Desired results are accomplished by heating in temperature ranges where a phase or combination of phases is stable (thus producing changes in the microstructure or distribution...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
.... Crude Unit The crude unit is the initial processing unit in most refineries. The raw crude oil enters the unit and after being heated somewhat, it enters the desalting phase. After desalting, the crude oil continues to be heated by exchangers and direct fired furnaces, normally reaching...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... of proportional controllers and heat-regulating devices. Integration of control functions is illustrated with examples related to heating of steel slabs, surface hardening of steel parts, vacuum induction melting for casting operations, and process optimization for electric-demand control. Distributed control...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.9781627083195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... coefficient of thermal expansion is a material property that indicates the extent to which a material expands on heating and has units of reciprocal temperature, such as K −1 or μm/m · K. The coefficient of thermal expansion increases as the temperature increases. In general, coefficient of thermal expansion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.9781627082914
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200206
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
...) are shown in Figures 16-1 and 16-2 . The first figure shows variation in nickel content over time as the heats are produced (run chart). The second figure shows the number of heats produced at each percent of nickel; i.e., the DISTRIBUTION of nickel content for this cast alloy. Fig. 16-1 Percent...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... be attributed to the rapid advancement in the computing technology, user-friendly commercial FE software and the detailed information FEM can provide as compared to other methods of analysis. The FE method allows the user to incorporate in the simulation: (a) the tool and workpiece temperatures, (b) the heat...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
... ), small solid particles in the range of 5 to 100 μm in diameter are accelerated in a supersonic jet of heated gas to high velocities, typically on the order of 300 to 1200 m/s (1000 to 4000 ft/s), and then sprayed onto a hard substrate surface; for example, a metal, ceramic, or glass. If the velocity...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... the properties and appearance of the part without changing its shape. Heat treating, anodizing, and surface treatment are commonly used material treatment processes. Joining processes, in which two or more parts are joined to form a new component or subassembly. Metallurgical joining processes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.9781627082822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
... involve dissolution, precipitation, or uniform distribution of the alloying components. The choice of homogenization, heterogenization, or a combined heat treatment depends on each individual case. Homogenization comprises three major steps, heating billet logs with a particular rate, holding...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... of volatile small hydrocarbon species. Often, first-stage heating prior to sintering is termed dewaxing. Fig. 3.8 Illustration of molecule size distribution in a sample of paraffin wax, showing a mode at 27 carbon atoms, giving a molecular weight of approximately 380 g/mol. The corresponding melting...