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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... Abstract The design requirements for mechanical shafts, pinions, and gears often call for features with very hard surfaces (to resist wear) based on a softer core (to avoid brittle fracture). This chapter explains how to selectively harden steel by diffusing carbon and nitrogen atoms...
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Published: 01 December 2000
Fig. 9.2 Recommended maximum surface hardness and effective case depth hardness vs. carbon percent for induction-hardened gears More
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Published: 30 April 2021
Fig. 12.2 Knoop hardness indents showing increased hardness at the surface of a case-hardened surface. The least count on the scale is 0.0005 in. More
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Published: 01 December 1999
Fig. 8.27 Effect of shot hardness and surface hardness on the distribution of residual stresses. (a) 1045 steel hardened to R c 48. (b) 1045 steel hardened to R c 62 peened with 330 shot. Source: Ref 30 More
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Published: 01 September 2005
Fig. 3 Recommended maximum surface hardness and effective case depth hardness vs. carbon percent for induction-hardened gears More
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Published: 01 December 1999
Fig. 1.27 Relationship between surface hardness and seizure. (a) Relation of hardness, HV, with maximum contact stress, σ max , when destructive seizure occurs for through hardened or induction hardened steels. Source: Ref 42 . (b) Variation of seizing load with microhardness of the outer More
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Published: 01 November 2010
Fig. 3.8 Schematic showing the lapping process. The abrasive is applied to a hard surface and therefore is free to roll and erode the sample surface. The arrows placed on the particles indicate the rolling direction opposite to the platen direction. More
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Published: 01 January 1998
Fig. 16-2 Ranges of surface hardness produced by various surface modification treatments. Source: Ref 8 More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... by taking light cuts with the appropriate cutting speed, either with grinding or even hard turning operations. Nitriding produces extremely high surface hardness values. It is essential to use a soft wheel during grinding with small cuts and copious amounts of coolant. Otherwise, localized overheating...
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Published: 30 September 2023
Figure 8.23: Effects of repeated contact with the roll surface in rolling a hard 3003 aluminum alloy strip. (a) Effect on roll force and (b) forward slip with a mineral oil; (c) effect on roll force and (d) forward slip with a compounded oil. More
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Published: 01 December 2003
Fig. 1 Schematic of a polymer surface in contact with a hard asperity. Two friction dissipation zones are shown: the interfacial shear zone and the deformation zone. Source: Ref 4 More
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Published: 01 October 2011
Fig. 9.31 Surface hardening of steel by induction. (a) Tooth-by-tooth induction hardening of a gear. (b) Hardening of hammerheads. Courtesy of Ajax Tocco Magnethermic More
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Published: 30 November 2013
Fig. 17 Surface of a fatigue fracture in a grade 1050 steel shaft, with hardness of about 35 HRC, that was subjected to rotating bending. The presence of numerous ratchet marks (small shiny areas at the surface) indicates that fatigue cracks were initiated at many locations along a sharp snap More
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Published: 01 March 2006
Fig. 14 Effect of section size on surface hardness of a 0.54% carbon steel quenched in water from 830 °C (1525 °F). Source: Ref 9 More
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Published: 01 September 2008
Fig. 31 Hardness reached after induction surface hardening at various heating rates in steel with 0.45% C. Source: Ref 15 , 27 More
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Published: 01 September 2008
Fig. 47 Various residual-stress and hardness profiles below the surface. Source: Ref 15 More
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Published: 01 September 2008
Fig. 83 Hardness profile in the induction surface-hardened layer and microhardness profile in a very thin surface layer for bearing location “A”. Source: Ref 44 More
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Published: 01 September 2008
Fig. 84 Hardness profile in the induction surface-hardened layer and microhardness profile in a very thin surface layer for bearing location “C”. Source: Ref 44 More
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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 10.29 Hard, brittle, oxygen-enriched alpha case forms on the surface of titanium when exposed to elevated temperatures in air. This undesirable layer must be removed because it cracks easily and reduces fatigue life. Etchant: 2%HF-2%HNO 3 -96%H 2 O. Original magnification: 100x More
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Published: 01 December 2003
Fig. 3 Variation in hardness with distance from the surface of AISI HNV 3 (X45CrSi9.3) steel treated by Melonite process with varying conditions. Source: Ref 4 More