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Gray iron

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
...Abstract Abstract This article covers the metallurgy and properties of gray irons. It describes the classes or grades of gray iron, the types of applications for which they are suited, and the corresponding compositional ranges. It discusses the role of major, minor, and trace elements, how...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses the composition and morphology of compacted graphite (CG) iron relative to that of gray and ductile iron. It explains that the graphite in CG iron is intermediate in shape between the spheroidal graphite found in ductile iron and the flake graphite...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
...Classification of cast iron by commercial designation, microstructure, and fracture Table 10.3 Classification of cast iron by commercial designation, microstructure, and fracture Commercial designation Carbon-rich phase Matrix (a) Fracture Final structure after Gray iron...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
..., V, Cr, Sn, Mo, and Mn) promote the formation of cementite. This chapter examines the relative potencies of these alloys and their effect on microstructure. It covers the five most common commercial cast irons, including white, gray, ductile, malleable, and compacted graphite, describing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
...Typical compositions of major classes of cast irons Table 1 Typical compositions of major classes of cast irons Irons Composition (a) , % Total C (b) Si Mn P S Other Gray cast iron Ordinary grade 3.4 2.0 0.6 0.20 0.10 … High-strength grade 3.0 1.5...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the composition, properties, microstructure, grain formation, and fracture behavior of gray, white, ductile, and malleable cast iron and how these critical factors are affected when iron is heated to different temperatures prior to or during...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
...Mechanical properties of selected cast irons Table 7.1 Mechanical properties of selected cast irons Cast iron type Composition, % Yield strength (a) Tensile strength (b) Elongation, % Elastic modulus (c) Hardness (d) Gray 2.5 C 1.85 Si 0.5 Mn Breaks 25–50 (192–344) nil...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... of an iron-base superalloy A286 showing a microstructure consisting of austenite. The straight-edged regions are annealing twins. Etched in a solution of 100 ml water, 20 ml HCl, 1 g NH 4 F HF, and 0.5 g K 2 S 2 O 5 . 200× Fig. 1.24 Micrograph of a gray cast iron showing a microstructure consisting...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
...Types of cast iron and their structural characteristics Table 17.1 Types of cast iron and their structural characteristics Usual name Carbon rich phase Matrix Final structure obtained through Gray cast irons Lamellar or flake graphite P, F Solidification Nodular cast iron...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
...Abstract Abstract This article explains how malleable iron is produced and how its microstructure and properties differ from those of gray and ductile iron. Malleable iron is first cast as white iron then annealed to convert the iron carbide into irregularly shaped graphite particles called...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
... characteristics of gear steels and the bending fatigue strength and properties of carburized steels are reviewed. In addition to wrought steels, the chapter provides information on the other iron-base alloys that are used for gears, namely cast carbon and alloy steels, gray and ductile cast irons, powder...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdsm.t69870009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-344-7
... and explains how to construct double-amplitude stress-strain curves that account for complex straining histories. For special cases, those involving complex materials such as gray cast iron or highly complex straining patterns, the chapter presents other methods of analysis, including the rainflow cycle...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
...Recommended practices for annealing gray iron castings Table 3 Recommended practices for annealing gray iron castings Type of anneal Purpose Temperature (a) Time Cooling rate (b) °C °F Low-temperature (ferritizing) For conversion of pearlite to ferrite in unalloyed irons...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
...× Fig. 2.1(d) A microstructure consisting of pearlite (dark), bainite (gray), and martensite (white). 4% picral and 2% nitral etch. 500× Fig. 2.2 The iron-carbon phase diagram. Solid lines indicate Fe-Fe 3 C diagram; dashed lines indicate iron-graphite diagram. Source: Ref 5 Fig...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... describing the effects of temperature variations on mechanical properties, both in tension and in compression. The nonlinear behavior of gray cast iron caused by the graphite flakes is then described. Finally, the effect of stress concentrations on high-strength metals is considered. elastic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... for small work Source: Ref 2 Fig. 2 Cross sections of laser-melted cast iron surfaces. (a) Gray iron. (b) Ductile iron. Source: Ref 3 Fig. 3 Erosive wear behavior of as-received and laser-melted gray and ductile irons. Source: Ref 3 Fig. 1 Relationship of carbon...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... during solidification in a manner similar to that in which eutectic graphite separates in gray cast iron. However, because of additives (spheroidizing elements) introduced in the molten iron before casting, graphite grows as spheres, rather than as flakes of any of the forms characteristic of gray irons...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.9781627082976
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... to the identity of the material. Along with other visual features, such as color and apparent density, the fracture appearance can be used to provide a rough separation of metals. Ostrofsky provides the following guidelines for use with iron-base alloys [ 30 ]: Metal Fracture appearance Gray cast iron...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... respond to SBN, but the presence of nitride-forming alloying elements is not required to produce a compound zone. Formation of nitride in low-carbon steel is seen in Fig. 11 . Cast gray iron and ductile (nodular) iron are also treatable by this diffusion process. The response to SBN as measured by depths...