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Grain boundaries

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... at 810 °C for 60 s, cooled in air, four cycles. 210 HV. Picral 100×. (h) Initial structure as in (d). Austenitized at 810 °C for 60 s, cooled in air, six cycles. 205 HV. Picral 100×. Fig. 8.14 (Part 1) Overheating: grain-boundary sulfide precipitation. 0.3% C, Ni-Cr-Mo alloy (0.32C-0.25Si...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... + 0.009% B +0.01% Zr 0.002 647 14 Effect of boron and zirconium on the grain-boundary stability of U-500 at 870 °C (1600 °F) Table 12.9 Effect of boron and zirconium on the grain-boundary stability of U-500 at 870 °C (1600 °F) Alloy After ε = 0.012 in 200 h After 200 h, no σ...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... Fig. 16.1 Schaeffler diagram. The regions corresponding to the most common stainless steel families are indicated. Fig. 16.2 AISI 410 martensitic stainless steel quenched and tempered. (a) and (b) Tempered martensite. (c) Tempered martensite with grain boundaries decorated with fine...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ciktmse.t56020013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-389-8
... of twinning planes on stacking sequences. The chapter also includes problems on how the formation of precipitates can produce slip planes and how grain boundaries can act as obstacles to dislocation motion. dislocation mobility edge dislocations glide plane grain boundaries miscibility pinning...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... twinned grains and recrystallized grains along original grain boundaries that result from working during metallographic polishing. Source: Ref 2 Fig. 2 Schematic diagrams of the 14 different lattices Fig. 3 Face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure Fig. 4 Hexagonal close...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... surface tension acting on grain-boundary segments contributes to grain growth and how the formation of new grains, driven by phase transformations and recrystallization, lead to a reduction in average grain size. It also discusses the effect of alloying elements on grain growth rates, particularly...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the typical compositional ranges of superalloys, the role of major base metals (iron, cobalt, and nickel), and the effects of common alloying additions. It describes how chromium, aluminum, and titanium as well as refractory elements, grain-boundary...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdmht.t52060001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-343-0
..., dislocation movement, and grain boundary sliding. It describes these mechanisms in qualitative terms, explaining how they are driven by thermal energy and how they can be analyzed using creep curves and deformation maps. In addition, it examines the types of damage associated with creep, presents a number...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the context in which metallography is used and some of the challenges of analyzing three-dimensional structures from a two-dimensional perspective. It describes the hierarchical nature of metals, the formation of grain boundaries, and the notable...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... the control of grain structure, as in columnar-grained alloys, or by the elimination of grain boundaries as with single-crystal superalloys. dispersion strengthening precipitation hardening solid-solution hardening superalloys SUPERALLOYS ARE STRENGTHENED through three principal mechanisms...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... temperatures, hydrogen atoms can be absorbed at the surface and then diffuse into the metal. Hydrogen atoms in the metal then react with iron carbide forming methane gas which can accumulate at grain boundaries and other interfaces. The chapter describes two applications, one in coal-fired boilers, the other...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... H 2 O, at boiling temperature add MoO 3 , until saturation 20 °C, grain boundary etching 17m Lienard 1 g (NH 4 ) 2 MoO 4 , 200 ml H 2 O dist., 6 g NH 4 Cl 20 °C 1 , 15 — H 3 PO 4 10% H 3 PO 4 , H 2 O dist. 20 °C, 20 s 1 , 10 – 13 1–5min, 50 °C 2m H 2 SO 4 20% H 2 SO 4...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... of a surface film. It describes bulk and surface reactions that contribute to SCC, including dissolution, mass transport, absorption, diffusion, and embrittlement, and their role in crack nucleation and growth. It also discusses crack tip chemistry, grain-boundary interactions, and the effect of stress...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... adjacent regions of chromium. GB, grain boundary Fig. 7 Isocorrosion rates of various stainless steels in sulfuric acid. Source: Ref 9 Fig. 30 Zones of susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking Fig. 8 Influence of alloying element on corrosion rate in contaminated sulfuric...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... Fig. 3.28 Microstructure of an AISI/SAE 1080 steel bloom showing excessive decarburization along (a) the bloom surface and a shallow crack and (b) a magnified view at the crack tip. Note that ferrite has nucleated on the prior austenite grain boundaries. 4% picral etch. (a) 40× and (b) 100...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... and rearrangement of defects within the deformed metal, without the movement or migration of high-angle grain boundaries. During recovery, there are several basic types of processes that occur: (1) the annihilation of excess point defects, particularly vacancies; (2) the rearrangement of dislocations into lower...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdmht.t52060043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-343-0
... Regime of Applicability of the IDR for Determining Pure CP, PC, and CC Life Relationships Ability of the IDR to Predict Creep-Fatigue Lives for Concurrent SRP Strain Ranges If creep deformation is represented by sliding along the grain boundary together with tensile-stress-induced void formation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... boundaries, and abundant twin boundaries. Sintering time 30 minutes and dew point of sintering atmosphere –46 °C (–55 °F). Glyceregia etch Fig. 10 Photomicrograph of high temperature 1288 °C (2350 °F), 30 minutes, hydrogen sintered 316L showing well-rounded porosity, precipitate-free grain...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... to grain boundaries or surfaces, which act as sinks. If a metal is heated to a high temperature, the number of vacancies increases. If it is then suddenly quenched to room temperature, the vacancies are trapped in the lattice, because they do not have time to diffuse out. Vacancies can form by several...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... crystallographic orientation with respect to the polished surface. The different crystallographic planes that are exposed by the chemical attack can reflect light at different angles from the incident beam in the microscope. Also, between the individual ferrite grains there is a grain boundary. These boundaries...