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Grain boundaries

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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 12.5 Because atoms at grain boundaries are in a higher energy state, the grain boundaries become anodic. More
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Published: 01 November 2019
Figure 6 AFM image of an Al-Cu bond pad. The grain boundaries are clearly visible. More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 7.9 Austenitic grain boundaries in a steel containing C = 0.08%, Mn = 0.7%. The grain boundaries were revealed by thermal oxidation etching (see Chapter 9, “Conventional Heat Treatments: Usual Constitutents and Their Formation,” in this book). Courtesy of C. Garcia-Mateo, Centro More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 9.50 Interaction between grain boundaries and second-phase particles. This interaction may be sufficient to balance the driving force for grain growth, stabilizing the grain size D is the diffusion coefficient and γ is the interfacial energy. Source: Adapted from Ref 7 More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 9.59 McQuaid-Ehn test sample with austenitic grain boundaries marked by a network of cementite produced by carburization of the specimen surface. Courtesy of S. Bruschi, Universitá degli Studi di Padova, Padova, Italy. More
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Published: 01 September 2008
Fig. 11 Ferrite vein crack occurring in the prior-austenite grain boundaries of weld metal deposited on A709-grade 50W More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 10.62 Quench crack in prior austenitic grain boundaries. During heating for quenching there was excessive austenitic grain growth. Etchant: nital 2%. Courtesy of M.M. Souza, Neumayer-Tekfor, Jundiaí, Brazil. More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 16.5 Crack following prior austenitic grain boundaries in AISI 410 steel subjected to corrosion testing according to NACE TM 0177 standard. Courtesy of A. Zeemann, Tecmetal, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. More
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Published: 01 September 2008
Fig. 59 Intergranular oxidation of the surface along prior grain boundaries in a carburized steel. Original magnification: 1000×. Source: Ref 78 More
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Published: 01 January 2000
Fig. 5 Schematic diagram of grain boundaries in a metal More
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Published: 01 January 2000
Fig. 6 Ferrite grains and grain boundaries in a low-carbon ferritic sheet steel etched with 2% nital. 300× More
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Published: 01 January 2000
Fig. 45 Intergranular corrosion of sensitized HAZ grain boundaries and methods for its prevention. The four different panels were joined by welding and then exposed to a hot solution of nitric-hydrofluoric acid (HNO 3 -HF). Weld decay, such as that shown in the type 304 steel (bottom right More
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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 4.17 Proeutectoid cementite (white network) formed at austenite grain boundaries in an Fe-1.22C alloy held at 780 °C (1435 °F) for 30 min. Dark patches are pearlite colonies and the remainder of the microstructure is martensite and retained austenite. Nital etch. Original magnification More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 8.28 Prior austenite grain boundaries in a quenched 0.5% Mo-B steel. (a) 200× and (b) 500×. Boiling alkaline sodium picrate etch followed by 10 seconds in 2% nital etch and 20 seconds in 4% picral etch More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 8.29 Prior austenite grain boundaries in a quenched and tempered MIL-S-23194 composition F-steel forging. Modified Winsteard’s etch. 500× More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 8.46 Annealed AISI/SAE 316 austenitic stainless steel showing grain boundaries but the absence of twins. Ideal for grain size measurements by image analysis. Electrolytically etched with 60% nitric acid and 40% water using a platinum cathode at 5 V. 500× More
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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 8.4 Prior-austenite grain boundaries in the core of a carburized steel. (a) Etched and partially repolished, leaving remnants of intragranular structure. (b) Etched and repolished to remove all intragranular structure. Light micrographs; details of etching are given in the text. Source More
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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 13.3 (a) Carbide network at prior austenite grain boundaries in 52100 steel. Light micrograph, nital etch, original magnification 600×; shown here at 75%. (b) Fracture along grain-boundary carbides in 52100 steel. Scanning electron micrograph, original magnification 415×; shown here at 75 More
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Published: 01 June 2008
Fig. 2.22 Grain boundaries in equilibrium. Source: Ref 2 More
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Published: 01 June 2008
Fig. 18.11 Precipitation of chromium carbide at grain boundaries More