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Gating and risering

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Published: 01 November 2013
Fig. 20 Patterns for a sand casting and its gating and risering systems, for four different methods of mold production. Source: Ref 6 More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
..., affecting casting quality. Figure 9.14 ( Ref 2 ) is a plot of recommended pouring times for different poured weights (casting + gating + feeders/risers). Molds with lower poured weights of about 10 kg are typically hand poured in about 4 seconds. The graph shows a nearly horizontal line to reflect...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... is shaken out of the mold, and the risers and gates are removed. Risers (also called feeders) are shapes that are attached to the casting to provide a liquid-metal reservoir and control solidification shrinkage. Metal in the risers is needed to compensate for shrinkage that occurs during cooling...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... for drilling and tapping for attaching parts. Bottom Pour Ladle See Ladle, Bottom Pour. Bracket Strengthening strip, rib, or projection on a casting. Usually used to prevent hot tearing. (See Cracking strip). BreakofT Notch . . . A thinner section of a gate or riser to facilitate clean breaking-off during...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320217
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
... on steel. Then, it provides an overview of steel casting applications. Next, the chapter reviews engineering guidelines for steel castings and feeder design. The following section provides information on feeding aids. Further, the chapter describes the elements of gating systems for steel castings. It also...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
... by geometrical complexity, varying section thickness, solidification rate, alloy feeding characteristics, and by limitations in effective gating and risering practice that fail to provide the gradients required for directional solidification. Shrinkage void fraction varies in proportion to the fourth root...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... in Chapter 14, “Finishing, Heat Treatment and Inspection.” Efforts to reduce the time necessary to remove gates and risers, to simplify core removal, and reduce grinding and fin removal will result in lower costs. The cost of removing a core from a casting cavity may become prohibitive when...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... texture comparator plates (ASTM A802) can be used as references. Removal of Risers, Gates and Metal Padding The contacts through which the metal entered the casting must be cut to remove the risers and the gating system from the casting. Various methods may be selected for this operation depending...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
... expendable or gravity permanent mold processes. 3.3.3 Gating and Risering There is a commonality in practices and terminologies for gravity casting in both expendable and nonexpendable molds. Molten metal is normally introduced to the mold cavity in an arrangement referred to as the gating system...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
.... A number of factors should be considered in the construction and design of the pattern, for example: the molding method used by the foundry (e.g., green sand, air set, etc.), parting line, coring, and risering and gating techniques used. Definitions In discussing pattern equipment with foundrymen...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... in the cope half of the flask. The sprue is where liquid metal enters the mold. In a complex casting, the sprue is usually gated to different positions around the casting. The risers are essentially reservoirs for liquid metal that keep the casting supplied with liquid metal as the metal shrinks and contracts...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
... into the hopper below; the casting can be retrieved from the grating on the hopper. The plastic sheets on the top and bottom flasks as well as the partially burned plastic sheets are recovered for recycling. The casting moves to the trim station for sawing of the gates, risers, and feeders. Advantages...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ceeg.t59370145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-447-5
... that are used. The difference in yield among different processes is primarily due to the percentage of weights of gates and feeders. The sprues, runners, gates, and feeders are recycled in all processes, and these influence the amounts of T-bars, sows, and ingots that are used. The mechanical properties...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
... Abstract This chapter covers mechanical properties, microstructures, chemical compositions, manufacturing processes, and engineering of gating practices for several applications of gray, white, and alloyed cast irons. It begins with a description of material standards, followed by a section...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.9781627083355
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.t68410151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
... sawing also needs to be ground; this is called a deburring operation. The allowable length of the gate stub that can be left on the part after removing the gates and feeders depends on whether the surface is subsequently machined or not. The length of the gate or riser stub that can be left...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... the periphery of the web to line B-C as can be seen in section A-A. This saves weight and also improves directional solidification to minimize shrinkage. Three risers were felt to be sufficient to feed the casting during solidification, one at the location marked D on each end, and one on the end...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.t68410029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
..., and the casting is retrieved from the grating on the hopper. The plastic sheets at the top and bottom of the flasks, as well as the partially burned plastic sheets, are recovered for recycling. The casting moves to the trim station, where the gates and risers will be sawed. Advantages The advantages...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... solidification times to section modulus (Volume/Section Area) and give an estimation of the solidification sequence (freezing order) within a casting section. Other such programs calculate riser dimensions and the number of risers required with different options designed to optimize yields and manufacturing...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... and the price of the cast component. Porosity and casting costs are minimized in casting designs that emphasize progressive solidification toward a gate or riser, tapered walls, and the avoidance of hot spots. Inclusions Inclusions are nonmetallic particles that are found in the casting. They may form...