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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Abstract This chapter discusses the most common causes and contributing factors for external corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking on oil and natural gas pipelines, as well as describes procedures for prevention, mitigation, detection, assessment, and repair. The forms of external corrosion...
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 3.14 A natural gas pipeline that failed during field testing. Source: Ref 3.5 . More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Abstract This chapter examines methods of internal corrosion prediction for multiphase pipelines and details methodologies to perform internal corrosion direct assessment for natural gas pipelines. Further, real-time monitoring techniques for assessing actual corrosion at critical locations...
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Published: 01 December 2015
Fig. 13 Comparison between general corrosion and localized (pitting) corrosion data recorded from a dehydrated gas pipeline environment. Source: Ref 59 More
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Published: 01 December 2015
Fig. 14 Corrosion rate during inhibitor injection on/off cycle in a sour gas pipeline. Note: Measured corrosion rate with default B value and measured B value from harmonic distortion analysis. Source: Ref 60 More
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Published: 01 December 2015
of electrochemical data from a partially dehydrated CO 2 gas pipeline liquid phase water/glycol and condensing vapor phase in system. Corrosion rates are given in mils per year (mpy). Source: Ref 100 More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... nitrate solution concentration. Stress-corrosion cracking of natural gas pipelines has been linked to environments consisting of carbonate/bicarbonate solutions in the buried soil environment. The development of the corrosive environment on the OD surfaces of piping has been associated with slightly...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
..., they frequently are used in equipment for applications that involve low temperatures. In the period 1948 to 1951, there were many fractures of natural gas pipelines. Most occurred during testing, and most started at welding defects but propagated through sound metal. One of the longest cracks was 975 m (3200...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... inhibitors oil and gas production oil wells gas wells water injection systems oil and gas pipelines bacteria-induced corrosion CORROSION INHIBITORS historically used in the oil field can be grouped into several common types or mechanistic classes: passivating, vapor phase, cathodic, anodic, film...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
...), and Pyrowear 675 (UNS S42670) Recently developed “supermartensitic” grades used for oil and gas pipelines. These alloys contain nominally 11 to 13% Cr, 2 to 6% Ni, 1 to 3% Mo, and 0.01 to 0.03 % C. Additional information on these grades can be found in the section “ Corrosion Behavior ” later...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... concentrates on those aspects of corrosion that tend to be unique to corrosion as encountered in applications involving oil and gas exploration and production, namely extracting oil and gas from underground reservoirs and sending these products through a gathering system of pipelines to processing facilities...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... stress-corrosion cracking STRESS-CORROSION CRACKING (SCC) of carbon and low-alloy steels is a significant problem for a variety of industries, such as those dealing with power generation (including nuclear), oil and gas production, refining/processing and pipeline transmission, chemical processing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... in higher resistivity soil. Accelerated corrosion occurs on the foreign line at the point of current discharge. The location of the discharge can be detected because the pipe-to-soil potential is very low at that point. Likewise in an oil or gas field, where the flow-line system or the well casings from...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
..., and relocation and also to provide procedures to assess risk of brittle fracture ( Ref 3 ). 8.5 Safety Regulations for Transmission Pipelines Failures of Oil Transmission Pipelines A pipeline for gasoline, in Minnesota, constructed in 1957 with electric resistance welded (ERW) pipes, burst on July 8...
Image
Published: 01 December 2015
Fig. 6 Example of colony of stress-corrosion cracks on external surface of high-pressure gas transmission pipeline. More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... and tempering is for piping or tubular goods used for oil wells and gas pipelines. In a typical installation, such as that at Lone Star Steel [4] ( Fig. 10.11 ), processing is conducted on a continuous line on which the steel is austenitized, quenched, tempered, and finally cooled to room temperature...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
...-65 pipe. The X-65 material is designated by API as a pipe steel with at least 448 MPa (65 ksi) yield strength and 566 MPa (82 ksi) tensile strength. This type of weld is typical for a large oil or gas pipeline. However, for this example, procedures were deliberately selected to produce a weld...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... in seawater. It is common practice to protect steel ship hulls by attaching zinc anodes to the steel structure. Zinc “bracelet” anodes are installed on pipelines immersed in seawater to provide sacrificial cathodic protection to the outer surfaces of the steel pipe ( Fig. 11 ). Offshore structures for gas...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... Table 1 . (b) Obtained by producing killed steel, made to fine grain practice, and with microalloying elements such as niobium, vanadium, titanium, and zirconium in the composition Applications Applications of HSLA steels include oil and gas pipelines, heavy-duty highway and off-road...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... protection was first suggested by Sir Humphrey Davy in the 1820s as a means of controlling corrosion on British naval ships ( Ref 1 ). It became common in the 1930s on the Gulf Coast of the United States, where it was used to control the corrosion of pipelines carrying high-pressure natural gas and petroleum...