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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
...Abstract Abstract In forgings of both ferrous and nonferrous metals, the flaws that most often occur are caused by conditions that exist in the ingot, by subsequent hot working of the ingot or the billet, and by hot or cold working during forging. The inspection methods most commonly used...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
...Recommended forging temperature ranges for commonly forged titanium alloys Table 5.1 Recommended forging temperature ranges for commonly forged titanium alloys Alloy β t Process (a) Forging temperature (b) °C °F °C °F α/ near -α alloys Ti-CP (c) 915 1675 C 815...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the similarities and differences of forging and forming processes used in the production of wrought superalloy parts. Although forming is rarely concerned with microstructure, forging processes are often designed with microstructure in mind. Besides...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
...Failure analysis of steel forgings and components Table 1 Failure analysis of steel forgings and components Case study Defect Solution Crankshaft underfill Unable to fill crankshaft flanges with existing press capacity Introduce creep stages for last increment of displacements...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
...Abstract Abstract Forging machines vary based on factors such as the rate at which energy is applied to the workpiece and the means by which it is controlled. Each type has distinct advantages and disadvantages, depending on lot size, workpiece complexity, dimensional tolerances, and the alloy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
...Abstract Abstract Prior to forging, it is often necessary to preform billet stock to achieve adequate material distribution. This chapter discusses the equipment used for such operations, including transverse rolling machines, electric upsetters, ring-rolling mills, horizontal presses...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the process of cold forging and its effect on various materials. It describes billet preparation and lubrication procedures, cold upsetting techniques, and the use of slab analysis for estimating cold forging loads. It likewise describes extrusion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
..., and forging. casting forging forming gears GEAR MANUFACTURE depends on machinery available, design specifications or requirements, cost of production, and type of material from which the gear is to be made. There are many methods for manufacturing gears including: Metal removal processes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
...Abstract Abstract This chapter presents a relatively simple method for estimating forging loads and flow stresses. The method uses the slab analysis technique and accounts for material properties, friction and heat transfer, press ram speed, forging geometry, and billet and die temperatures...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the development and use of microstructure models for optimizing superalloy forging operations. It describes how the processes that control grain structure evolution during hot working were used in model formulation and compares predicted microstructures...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the processes of isothermal and hot-die forging and their use in producing aerospace components. It explains how isothermal forging was developed to provide a near-net shape component geometry and well-controlled microstructures and properties...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
...Abstract Abstract This chapter explains that the key to forging is understanding and controlling metal flow and influential factors such as tool geometry, the mechanics of interface friction, material characteristics, and thermal conditions in the deformation zone. It also reviews common...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
...Abstract Abstract There are numerous approximate methods, both analytical and numerical, for analyzing forging processes. None are perfect because of the assumptions made to simplify the mathematical approach, but all have merit. This chapter discusses the slab, upperbound, and finite element...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.9781627083003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the design and operation of forging presses and hammers. It covers the most common types of presses, including hydraulic, mechanical, and screw presses, explaining how they work and comparing and contrasting their load and displacement profiles, stroke...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the factors involved in the design of impression-die forging systems. It begins by presenting a flow chart illustrating the basic steps in the forging design process and a block diagram that shows how key forging variables are related. It then describes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
...Abstract Abstract This chapter addresses the issue of die failures in hot and cold forging operations. It describes failure classifications, fatigue fracture and wear mechanisms, analytical wear models, and the various factors that limit die life. It also includes several case studies in which...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040319
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
...Abstract Abstract This chapter defines near-net shape forging as the process of forging parts close to their final dimensions such that little machining or only grinding is required as a final step. It then describes the causes of dimensional variations in forging, including die deflection...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
...Abstract Abstract Grain size has a determining effect on the mechanical properties of steel and responds favorably to forging and heat treating. This chapter explains how to measure and quantify grain size and how to control it through thermal cycling and forging operations. It describes how...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the use of finite-element methods for modeling cold forging processes. The discussion covers process modeling inputs, such as geometric parameters, material properties, and interface conditions, and includes several application examples. cold...