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Floe process

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... furnace system Abstract This chapter discusses the metallurgical considerations and process requirements of nitriding. It presents the pioneering work of Adolph Machlet and Adolph Fry and presents early developments. One such development is the Floe process, a two-stage treatment used to reduce...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
.... It explains how to control and calculate compound zone thickness. Compound zone thickness can be controlled by dilution, the two-stage Floe process, or by ion nitriding. The chapter describes the factors affecting surface case formation. References References 1. Pye D. , Nitriding Techniques...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... of Technology (see Chapter 1 for historical background). He developed what was originally known as the Floe process, now more commonly called the two-stage or sometimes the double-stage process. The purpose of the two-stage process is to reduce the thickness of the compound zone on the immediate surface...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... of the white layer, or compound zone. This is a function of the gas mixture during the nitriding process. The need to control the white layer was the primary reason for the development of the dilution process and the Floe process (two-stage process). The ion nitriding process uses molecular gases in any...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... degrees of dissociation always indicating a near-equilibrium state where the nitriding effect is low. In processing, it is common to use a constant degree of dissociation (e.g., 30%), but sometimes a two-stage procedure involving variations in temperature and dissociation degree (the Floe process...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... of dissociation at which the process should operate is usually around 30%. This, of course, will depend on whether a single-stage or two-stage process is being conducted. For the two-stage (Floe) process, the ammonia gas dissociation is at a lower value, generally (but not always) around 15%. Development...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htgpge.t67320189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-347-8
.... JSME , Vol 23 ( No. 177 ), Paper 117-17, 1980 10.1299/jsme1958.23.461 • Pederson R. and Rice R.L. , Case Crushing of Carburized and Hardened Gears , Trans. SAE , 1964 , p 250 • Powell G.W. , Benet M.B. , and Floe C.F. , Carbonitriding of Plain Carbon...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htgpge.9781627083478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-347-8
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htgpge.t67320133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-347-8
.... For example, single-stage gas nitriding may result in a white layer of 0.025 to 0.076 mm (0.001–0.003 in.) on materials normally used for gears. On the other hand, it is possible to hold this thickness to 0.0127 mm (0.0005 in.) or less with a two-stage gas nitriding process, also known as diffusion or Floe...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
... this thickness to 0.0127 mm (0.0005 in.) or less with a two-stage gas nitriding process, also known as diffusion or Floe process. This double-stage process uses two nitriding cycles, the first similar to the single-stage process (except for duration). In the first stage, gears are nitrided at a 15 to 30...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... the brittle nitrogen-rich compound zone known as the white nitride layer at the surface of the nitrided case. The double-stage process, or Floe process, has the advantage of reducing the white nitrided layer thickness. After the first stage, a second stage is added which either by continuing at the first...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410499
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
..., carbonitriding, and nitrocarburizing. The discussion on carburizing addresses several interrelated factors, including processing principles, alloying, surface oxidation, residual stresses, bending fatigue, contact fatigue, and fracture. carbonitriding carburizing ferritic nitrocarburizing flame...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
.... It provides images and data describing the nitridation process and its effects on metals and alloys in high-temperature air as well as NH3-H2O, NH3 and H2-N2-NH3, and N2 environments. It also includes test data showing that nitridation is more severe in a nitrogen atmosphere than an ammonia environment...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
.... The head is filled with flowing floes of opalescent alumina gel moving toward the tail, where aluminum ion transport and gradual reaction with hydroxyl ions take place. The final corrosion products are partially hydrated and full expanded in the porous tail. The head and middle sections of the tail...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.9781627083041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1