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Field metallography

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... Abstract This chapter discusses the tools and techniques of light microscopy and how they are used in the study of materials. It reviews the basic physics of light, the inner workings of light microscopes, and the relationship between resolution and depth of field. It explains the difference...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... with solidification starting from the single phase field where the liquid phase is present (L), passing through the field where FCC (γ) exists, and then passing to the field where BCC(α) + Fe 3 C are present. Fig. 7.1 Metastable equilibrium phase diagram for the system Fe-C, presented in two composition ranges...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... the field is very wide, supplementary readings and references are given and the reader is encouraged to peruse them before starting on a new technique. 5.1 Optical Microscopy Among the various techniques used to characterize steel and cast iron microstructure, the most common is optical microscopy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Magnetic particle inspection is used to locate surface and subsurface discontinuities in ferromagnetic materials. The method is based on the fact that when a material or part being tested is magnetized, discontinuities that lie in a direction generally transverse to the direction of the magnetic field...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.9781627082600
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... methods. Historically, quantitative metallography is a relatively new field. Except for the general concept of grain size, most metallurgists have had no technical training in quantitative metallography. While there are several excellent reviews [ 1 – 6 ] available on the subject, these references tend...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... until yellow. Then add other chemicals, if specified. Current density for electropolishing of solutionized or solutionized and aged Udimet-700 is 4.8 A/in2 (Gell and Field). ...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
.... Howe joined the Columbia School of Mines in 1897 as the first professor of metallurgy. He taught the new field of metallography and wrote Metallurgical Laboratory Notes (1902) and two more major books, Iron, Steel and other Alloys (1903) and The Metallography of Steel and Cast Iron (1916). He...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... seeking further knowledge in the field is provided subsequently. Listing is approximately chronological, from most recent to oldest. These references represent a desire to provide adequate additional knowledge across the broad spectrum of superalloy metallurgy. The length or time span for any sequence...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tm.t52320001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-357-7
...). Hooke was an excellent experimental scientist of the same generation as Newton. He influenced scientists in many fields by publishing in 1665 his spectacular book Micrographia , which was full of sketches of microscopic objects ( Fig. 1.5 ). In particular, his sketches of living cells represented...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... exhibit large differences in light reflectivity after polishing, the desired microstructure, or certain features of the microstructure, can be observed in the as-polished condition under bright-field illumination without recourse to subsequent treatments such as etching. Constituents that differ...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... the resolution range by more than two orders of magnitude to approximately 4 nm in routine instruments, with ultimate values below 1 nm. The SEM also provides a greater depth of field than the light microscope, with depth of focus ranging from 1 μm at 10,000× to 2 mm at 10×, which is larger by more than two...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... by Sorby, along with that of Osmond and Martens, is considered the real beginning of the field of metallography, the study of the internal structure of metals by light-reflected microscopy. From this point forward, the ever-increasing research in how the behavior of metals relates to their internal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
.... No etchant used Frye [1953] 15. Mechanical: Silk-covered bronze disc 2–5 min. Solution of 10 g oxalic acid in 100 g H 2 O to which 5–8 g Linde A powder is added. Followed by 2–3 min on Gamal cloth with Linde B in the oxalic acid solution Additional etching needed for bright-field examination Hausner...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
..., reasonably large specimens can be handled, and the microscope can easily be adopted for examination of components in the field or accident site. The amount of information one can obtain by macroscopic examination is remarkable. The features revealed during macroscopic examination are: Type of fracture...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... databases for particular needs, type of components, or industry. Thus, companies may keep statistics on failures with various types of database fields (e.g., type of failure, material, root cause, etc.) depending on their needs. The following is just one example. Example: Failure Database of Helicopter...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... widely used early methods for the determination of phase boundaries is cooling curves. The temperature of a sample is monitored while allowed to cool naturally from an elevated temperature in the liquid field. The shape of the resulting curves of temperature versus time are then analyzed for deviations...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... for the boundary of the L 1 + L 2 field; it is simply called the limit of liquid immiscibility. The eutectic reaction, depicted by dashed lines in this example, is included merely to carry the diagram into the temperature range where all phases are solid. Fig. 7.1 Monotectic phase diagram showing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... Abstract This chapter describes the various features of the metallurgical microscope. Key concepts are defined such as resolving power, the virtual image, bright- and dark-field illumination, numerical aperture, focal length, image contrast, depth of field, and spherical and chromatic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... above their beta transus temperature. Such structures are recognized by the needle-shaped appearance of the grains. Platelike structures form on slow cooling alpha or alpha-beta alloys from temperatures in the beta field, and they are characterized by a wide, elongated grain shape. The slower...