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Published: 01 August 2018
solidification. The liquid metal contained in the hot top can feed the ingot during the whole solidification process, compensating for shrinkage. All shrinkage volume is concentrated in the hot top. A combination of proper mold taper and mold design with an adequate hot top prevents formation of a secondary pipe More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... in the correct position at the correct instant in time. Among the delivery techniques are automatic conveyors with ingenious pickups, magazine feeds, and rotary tables. Tooling for a specific application can often be constructed about a standard unit using conventional movements such as: Geneva driver...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfw.t52860065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-338-6
... should be close to zero tension until impregnated. The tube package must be positioned horizontally, with the tube axis perpendicular to the direction of fiber feed. Fiber should never be pulled off the end, because each revolution of feed introduces one twist. Twist is not acceptable for high...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... databases, makes flow modeling calculations, and applies expert rules for assessment of corrosivity and/or materials selection. This basically has resulted in a joining of online monitoring, inspection technologies, computer science, and process control information with real-time feed to process...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfw.t52860001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-338-6
... in machine control give the winders an opportunity to wind noncylindrical and nonsymmetric objects and allow for a much more precise laydown of fiber. The higher capacities of computer memory that is now available allow the control of up to six axes of motion: mandrel rotation, cross feed, horizontal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
... for Malleable Iron Castings Table 8.4 summarizes manufacturing guidelines for malleable iron castings followed by examples. Figures 8.5 , 8.6 , and 8.7 ( Ref 5 ) illustrate the gating and feeding systems of a few typical castings, all produced in large volume using vertically parted molding systems...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... crude oils and gases that contain H 2 S are handled by most refineries. Hydrogen sulfide is also present in some feed-stocks handled by petrochemical plants. Fabricability Considerations With very few exceptions, process equipment and piping are fabricated by welding wrought steels. The shells...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720345
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... for magnetization and then removed for inspection, high speed production is hindered. The use of multiple probes reduces the actual testing time in proportion to the number of probes, but the time required feeding the tube over the conductor remains constant. Such installations are operated in production at speeds...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
... for this method. The wire-feed method consists of feeding the magnesium alloy in a hollow tube into the liquid metal at a controlled rate. The hollow tube-feed permits the use of inoculants for post-treatment inoculation. The introduction of magnesium alloy at the top of the metal has the potential for lower...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
... stages of interdendritic feeding. Centerline or piping voids result from gross directional effects, when, for example, large fully contained liquid pools are isolated within the casting during solidification. In Al-Si-Cu alloys, rapid cooling leads to the distribution of voids in the grain boundaries...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
... spray powders. Due to the nature of the cold spray process, there are several properties that the powder must have. In general, powder properties have a strong influence on two process phenomena: powder feeding/spraying and layer deposition. Powder feeding/spraying is mainly influenced...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
...) and a process pressure of 5 MPa. It is also possible to manufacture and supply a custom-made system with a performance focused on the customer’s application (e.g., 6 MPa, or 870 psi, and 1000 °C). Impact’s modular design allows the production of custom-made systems with two, three, or more powder-feed units...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320217
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
... on steel. Then, it provides an overview of steel casting applications. Next, the chapter reviews engineering guidelines for steel castings and feeder design. The following section provides information on feeding aids. Further, the chapter describes the elements of gating systems for steel castings. It also...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
..., the dies are closed, and the axial cylinders push the punches toward the tube end and seal the tube. Forming starts at stage B. Axial feed and increase in internal pressure are controlled simultaneously to improve the material-shaping capabilities. After the tube is completely formed (stage C), the punches...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
.... In cast pieces, directional solidification is controlled via proper design of the feeding channels (through which the liquid steel enters the mold), risers, and sometimes coolers. Risers are added to the piece design to guarantee that solidification advances toward them. Their dimensions and positions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... (42 in.) diameter X-65 steel pipe Process Pass No. Electrode Diameter Wire feed Current, A Voltage, V Travel speed mm in. mm/s in./s mm/s in./s SMAW 1 E8010-G 4.0 0.16 … … 150 26-28 5.9-7.2 2.3-2.8 2 E8010-G 4.0 0.16 … … 180 26-28 5.9-7.2 2.3-2.8 FCAW...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... the temperature of the water leaving the highest pressure feed water heater to the saturation temperature. In general, materials used at elevated temperatures must satisfy requirements such as: Adequate strength, not only at room temperature, but also at elevated temperatures, to resist creep...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... the workpiece, cutting tool, and chuck. Where a hood may not be practical, an exhaust nozzle alone can be used and should be located no further than 13 mm (0.5 in.) from the cutting tool. Although the speeds and feeds of typical lathe operations are similar to those applicable to cast iron, they are often...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... can cause a type of erosion of a surface through the mechanical force of the fluid itself. This common process is called impingement, and an example of such erosion is where fluid is forced to turn its flow direction at pipe bends. When solids are present in the liquid, they can cause erosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... that are in the dead zone for the conventional normal beam method. Entire cross-sectional area testing becomes possible with the angle beam method and the conventional normal beam method in combination. The testing method to feed the material spirally and to make the probes follow the deflection of the material...