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Environmental cracking (plastics)

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780146
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
..., namely plasticization, solvation, swelling, environmental stress cracking, polymer degradation, surface embrittlement, and temperature effects. chemical susceptibility thermal oxidative degradation photo-oxidative degradation environmental corrosion chemical corrosion plasticization solvation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... by metallurgical and environmental variables and loading conditions. It also examines the crack growth resistance curves of several aluminum alloys and describes the characteristics of fracture when all or some of the applied load is in the plane of the crack. crack-tip plasticity fracture resistance...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610327
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
..., it covers general characteristics, viscoelastic properties, and static strength. It also discusses fatigue life, impact strength, fracture toughness, and stress-rupture behaviors as well as environmental effects such as plasticization, solvation, swelling, stress cracking, degradation, and surface...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... for environmental failure. The critical strain or stress to obtain the crazing (or cracking) of plastics was measured in organic media, and it was observed that the behavior is determined approximately by the difference between the solubility parameters of the plastic and the organic agent ( Ref 1 , 2...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdsm.t69870237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-344-7
...: Ref 10.34 Fig. 10.37 Alternate shear mechanism of crack tip advance for air and vacuum proposed by Pelloux ( Ref 10.35 , 10.36 ) Fig. 10.38 Fatigue crack tip advance by plastic flow proposed by Tomkins ( Ref 10.37 ) and Tomkins and Biggs ( Ref 10.38 ) Fig. 10.39...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
..., a structure can fail by a number of different modes, including: Brittle fracture Ductile fracture Plastic collapse Fatigue Creep Corrosion Buckling These failure modes can be broken down into the following broad categories: Fracture Fatigue Environmental cracking...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
.... , Solvent Crazing of “Dry” Polystyrene and “Dry” Crazing of Plasticized Polystyrene , J. Polym. Sci. B, Polym. Phys. , Vol 11 , 1973 , p 1879 10.1002/pol.1973.180111003 20. Jacques C.H.M. and Wyzgoski M.G. , Prediction of Environmental Stress Cracking of Polycarbonate from...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdmht.t52060083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-343-0
... of creep-plasticity and the physical and metallurgical effects of environmental exposure. References References 5.1 Miller A.K. , A Realistic Model for the Deformation Behavior of High-Temperature Materials , Fatigue at Elevated Temperatures, STP 520 , American Society for Testing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... reveal features that identify the crack origin, crack-propagation direction, failure mode, load, and environmental conditions at the time of failure. This information is extremely useful in the determination of failure cause. Hence, as composites developed into structural materials, a similar need arose...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090367
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... as SCC proceeds, with the role of stress being negligible at first and then becoming dominant as subcritical cracking advances. Environmental action must always be involved, although it may be dominant only at first. The preexistence of a mechanical flaw or crack in the stressed metal may of course alter...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... with important fracture features. stress-corrosion cracking crack initiation crack propagation crack growth rate STRESS-CORROSION CRACKING (SCC) describes service failures in engineering materials that occur by slow environmentally induced crack propagation. The observed crack propagation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... debonding at inclusions before necking), and fracture typically occurs soon thereafter. In contrast, cavitation processes in polymers can dominate the plastic deformation. These voids do not coalesce into a crack but instead become stabilized by fibrils containing oriented polymeric material. The resulting...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... is produced in electric arc furnaces. In the process, flue dust with high zinc contents is treated to recover zinc. Lead battery plates are melted, refined, and recycled. The plastic case is shredded and recycled. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that approximately 80% of all lead...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
..., or environmental stress cracking can occur. In the case of property alteration through solvation or plasticization, FTIR can be helpful in identifying the absorbed chemicals. Because these chemicals are present within the failed plastic material, the likelihood of distinguishing the agents is high. Based...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... Bulk diffusion to the plastic zone ahead of the advancing crack Chemical reactions in the bulk The rate of interatomic bond rupture Fig. 1.5 Schematic of crack-tip processes that may be the rate-determining step in environmentally assisted crack propagation. For this illustration...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... they compare with metals. It begins by describing the fracture characteristics of ceramics and glasses along with typical properties and subcritical crack growth mechanisms. It then discusses the properties of engineering plastics and the factors affecting crack formation and growth, fracture toughness...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... completely during filling of compressed natural gas from a gas well after six months of service. The steel was A-372 class 5, quenched and tempered to a tensile strength of 1100 to 1170 MPa (160 to 170 ksi). The cause of the rupture was environmentally assisted cracking due to water and hydrogen sulfide...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... fracture may be initiated by dislocation interactions that, by definition, involve plasticity. This is why fractures are sometimes difficult to logically classify (Ref 5) . Therefore, it is helpful to be clear whether fracture mechanisms are describing the process of crack initiation or extension. Crack...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... by the combined effect of an applied mechanical stress and a hostile environment. This phenomenon, commonly referred to as stress-corrosion cracking, leads to the transition from a ductile or high-impact material to a glassy or brittle plastic. Analytic criteria for the exposure-time dependence are nonexistent...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdmht.t52060231
EISBN: 978-1-62708-343-0
... will never again reach the OPPT value. Hence, the risk is reduced of undergoing local plasticity at fillets when hydrogen is present. However, once fatigue cracks have initiated, their propagation rate will be significantly higher in a high-pressure hydrogen environment. (An order of magnitude or more...