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Drop forgings

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
..., ram velocities, and energy and stiffness requirements. It also includes information on gravity- and power-drop hammers and where and how they are typically used. gravity-drop hammers hydraulic presses mechanical presses power-drop hammers screw presses 11.1 Introduction...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... a part as close to the finished shape as possible. Forged products include crankshafts for car engines, adjustable wrenches, hammers, rotors for steam turbines, and landing gear components for aircraft. Drop Forging and Press Forging Drop forging and press forging are the two most general types...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
..., while the thermocouple placed in the sample actually showed an increase in the temperature at the bottom of the forging. It is interesting that the rate of the temperature drop, as indicated by the interface thermocouple, decreases significantly once the upper ram and the pressure are removed. As can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
..., Rolling Mills, and Accessories (in English), Akademiai Kiado , Budapest , p 168 . [Stotmann, 1968] Stotmann W. , “ Evolution of Machines and Automation in the Drop Forging Industry, ” Metal Forming , May , p 136 . Web Sites Web Sites • www.bemcor.com , Bemcor, Inc...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... in a manufacturing facility. Hydraulic press forges are common force sources, as are mechanical screw-driven machines. Some drop forge machines may exist but are not used to produce high-strength components that require great control of load, strain rate, and temperature. Rapid load application is probably best done...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
.... , “ A Further Consideration of Factors Affecting the Life of Drop Forging Dies, ” J. Iron Steel Inst. , Vol 210 ( No. 7 ), July 1969 , p 520 – 526 . [Bay, 2002] Bay N. , class notes , Technical University of Denmark , 2002 . [Bobke, 1991] Bobke T. , “ Phenomenon of Edge Layer...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... operations can be conducted with either gravity or power drop hammers and are used for both open- and closed-die forgings. Hammers deform the metal at high deformation speeds; therefore, it is necessary to control the length of the stroke, the speed of the blows, and the force being exerted. Hammer...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
...-range and speed-stroke behavior of forging equipment Speed range Forging machine ft/s m/s Speed-stroke behavior Hydraulic press 0.2 1.0(a) 0.06 0.30(a) Mechanical press 0.2 5 0.06 1.5 Screw press Gravity drop hammer Power drop hammer Counterblow hammer (total speed) HERF machines Low-speed Petroforge 2...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... such as Ti-15V-3Sn-3Cr-3Al in the past decade. Hot and Cold Forming Titanium and titanium alloy sheet and plate are strain hardened by cold forming. This normally increases tensile and yield strengths and causes a slight drop in ductility. Hot forming does not greatly affect final properties. Forming...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... Study , American Iron and Steel Institute , New York , 1966 • Silva T.M. and Dear T.A. , “ Wear in Drop Forging Dies—A Technical Paper ,” Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Birmingham, 1969 • Spretnak J.W. , “ Technical Notes on Forging ,” Forging...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... can lower the workpiece temperature to below the solutioning temperature, leading to precipitation and the subsequent drop in workability and the possibility of fracture. Also, temperature rise during deformation, a result of the higher strain rates of conventional forging, could lead to melting...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stmflw.t59390325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-459-8
... forging and drop forging when using hammer presses, involves two cooperating dies that define only part of the forging geometry. Material is free to flow out along the parting line into a flash ( Fig. 11.20 ). Figure 11.20: Stages of die filling in impression-die forging [ 5 ]. The contours show...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.9781627083003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.atia.t59340165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-427-7
... furnace. The baskets are dropped into a well-agitated warm-water quench to prevent distortion of the wheels. The forged 6061 wheels are aged to T6 temper. Computer numerical controlled (CNC) machining is used to create the final shape of the wheel, with about 20% of the metal removed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
.... From top to bottom: first upset, second upset, third upset, blocker, and finish Other factors to consider in designing forge operations are billet material flow stress and its variation with temperature drop and section thickness, lubrication required to overcome friction at the die-material...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... approximately 5 to 150 μm 2 /s, a factor of 30 (or 2900%—a very large change!). Figure 7.5 uses Eq 7.1 to calculate how long it will take a carbon atom to diffuse a distance of 1 mm in austenite (1 mm = 1000 μm = 0.04 in.). Again, the strong temperature dependence is obvious, as the time drops from 9.3 h...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... Abstract This chapter discusses the factors that affect die steel selection for hot forging, including material properties such as hardenability, heat and wear resistance, toughness, and resistance to plastic deformation and mechanical fatigue. It then describes the relative merits of various...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... or power drop hammers and are used for both open- and closed-die forgings. Hammers deform the metal with high deformation speed; therefore, it is necessary to control the length of the stroke, the speed of the blows, and the force being exerted. Hammer operations are frequently used to conduct preliminary...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
..., the bottom opened, and the contents dropped into the furnace. The impact of large scrap pieces on the refractory bottom of the arc furnace may severely damage that refractory and reduce furnace lining life. Thus, lighter scrap pieces, such as machining chips, are generally added to the arc furnace first, so...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... types of ingot flaws that can impair forgeability. Unmelted electrodes ( Fig. 4a ) are caused by chunks of electrodes being eroded away during consumable melting and dropping down into the molten material as a solid. Shelf ( Fig. 4b ) is a condition resulting from uneven solidification or cooling rates...