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Digesters

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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 1 The first kraft digester fabricated from alloy 2205. Courtesy of Outokumpu More
Image
Published: 01 December 2006
Fig. 17 Examples of digester weld cracking. (a) Macrograph showing cracking in a sample taken from a continuous digester weld. 10×. (b) Photomicrograph showing branched, intergranular nature of cracking in an actual continuous digester weld. 40× More
Image
Published: 01 December 2006
Fig. 18 Effect of stress relief on SCC susceptibility of continuous digester More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... a model of rapid technology transfer and innovation. Beginning in 1988, duplex stainless steels first went into production in kraft digesters, and there has been no turning back in the replacement of austenitic stainless steels by duplex. So, a discussion of the materials selection for the pulp-and-paper...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
Image
Published: 01 January 2017
Fig. 2.8 Identification of SCC electrochemical-potential range for steels exposed to pulp manufacture digester liquor. Source: Ref 2.107 More
Image
Published: 01 December 2006
Fig. 19 Plot showing the effect of potential on cracking severity in controlled-potential slow strain rate testing of digester steels exposed to a simulated impregnation zone liquor. SCE, saturated calomel electrode More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... and paper digesters ( Ref 7 – 9 ). Commercialization of anodic protection was begun by Continental Oil Company through license agreements. Independently and simultaneously, Corrosion Services in Canada began commercialization of anodic protection primarily in the pulp and paper industry. Since...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... contained herein. The Alloy Digest (ASM International) provides datasheets, from the 1950s to the present, for almost all titanium alloys in commercial use; the earlier datasheets provide, in some instances, a view of the alloy property situation in the early days of the commercial titanium industry...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... to a 650 mL Kjeldahl flask. Use a 1 g sample when checking a nitriding bath and a 2 g sample when checking a carburizing bath. Add 100 mL ammonia-free distilled water, 2 or 3 selenized Hengar granules, and 5 mL of concentrated sulfuric acid. Digest under the hood or in a Kjeldahl digesting unit until...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... property data on CD-ROM Pure Materials Properties: A Scienti c and Technical Handbook Alloy Digest Owner or provider CINDAS/USAF-CRDA, Handbook Operations, Purdue University Coordinator, Handbook Actitivies Wright Patterson AFB Dayton, OH Materials and Ceramics Info. Ctr. Battelle Memorial Inst. Columbus...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... , Rapp R.A. , Ed., Conf. Proc. ( San Diego, CA ), March 2–6, 1981 , NACE, 1981 , p 398 15. Kanthal Handbook: Resistance Heating Alloys and Elements for Industrial Furnaces , Kanthal Heating Systems, Hall-stahammar , Sweden , p 7 16. AISI Type 446 , Alloy Digest, Engineering Alloys...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... it is biologically synthesized in the bacterial cell, PHBV is completely biodegradable. Fungi, in particular, colonize the surface of PHBV in soils and secrete enzymes that digest the plastic. The products of this digestion are absorbed and metabolized, yielding carbon dioxide and water. The rate of biodegradation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... as BLRBs) are used to efficiently convert wood chips into paper in pulp and paper mills. The wood chips are first cooked in an aqueous solution (known as white liquor) in a digester for manufacturing pulp. The digested pulp is then separated from the residual liquor, which is relatively dilute in nature...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hss.t52790251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-356-0
.... , Stainless and Heat Resisting Steels , Edward Arnold Publishers Ltd. , London , 1965 , p 3 – 6 Davis J.R. , Stainless Steels , ASM International , Materials Park, Ohio , 1994 Davis J.R. , Ed., Stainless Steels , An Alloy Digest Sourcebook , ASM International , Materials Park...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
... , Trans. ASM , Vol 41 , 1949 , p 1248 23. Troiano A.R. , “ Final Report on Investigation of the Metallographic and Physical Properties of New Types of Gun Steels, ” OSRD Report No. 3513 , Serial No. M-239, April 1944 24. Alloy Digest , Engineering Alloys Digest, Inc. , 1956...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... extruded and hot rolled sheet material were generally supplied in the annealed condition [ Alloys Digest 1971 ], a condition where the alloy exhibits its maximum ductility and formability. Both tensile and yield strength are lowered by annealing [ London 1979 ]. Unlike pure beryllium, Lockalloy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... digesters used in the manufacture of paper and pulp have also been attributed to a form of caustic cracking ( Ref 2.107 ). Cracking often occurs in regions where hydroxides can concentrate and is generally associated with highly stressed areas. Plastic deformation has been demonstrated to be a prerequisite...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900291
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
... Plastic Molds, Am. Mach ., January 1951 , p 112 10. Kayser F.X. , Thomson R.F. , and Boegehold A.L. , An End-Quench Test for Determining the Hardenability of Carburized Steels , Trans. ASM , Vol 45 , 1953 , p 1056 11. Alloy Digest, Engineering Alloy Digest, Inc...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfw.t52860095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-338-6
... digestion assumes zero void content and determines fiber volume content by matrix digestion. The chemical reactions involved must be known for this technique to be useful, because the digestion of fiber by itself is liable to be different than in the laminate. Hot nitric acid has been found adequate...