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Deviations from ideality

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
...: The design stress range (Δ S design ) at a certain life (10 6 cycles) can be estimated from the mean fatigue strength (Δ S Weld ) of a weldment at a given life by: log Δ S design = log Δ S Weld – 2 s , where s is the standard deviation of log Δ S . Fig. 6 Frequency versus the log...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200206
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... in measurement. Table 16-1 illustrates the idealized relationship between (i) tolerance range, (ii) process standard deviation, (iii) measurement discrimination, and (iv) %R&R at the 10% and 30% levels for several tolerance ranges and standard deviations. (The table is dimensionless, but gives values...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htpa.t53310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-346-1
.... If the hardness measurement deviation, b , is taken into account in the measurement result, the hardness measurement deviation, u b , must be included instead of the limit deviation, u E . This is Method 2. Because u E is a lump-sum maximum value, which must be taken from the DIN EN ISO standard...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240625
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... in the center of the structure is located close to the atoms on the upper and lower basal planes. Therefore, any atom in the lattice is in contact with 12 neighboring atoms, and thus CN = 12. It should be noted that there is often some deviation from the ideal ratio of c / a = 1.633. If the ratio is less than...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htpa.t53310091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-346-1
... to determine the repeatability standard deviation of the testing method and thereby to assess the method on the basis of the suitability criteria. Aside from application-specific properties, the significant quality factors of a hardness testing machine or a hardness testing method are correctness...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... the two is which is known as high-K metal gate, also known as HKMG. As gate lengths keep reducing to increase the speed of operation and reduce cost, MOS devices start deviating from their ideal behavior and start exhibiting what is called short-channel effects. It occurs when the channel length...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... is therefore CN = 12. It should be noted that there is often some deviation from the ideal ratio of c/a = 1.633. If the ratio is less than 1.633, it means that the atoms are compressed in the c -axis direction, and if the ratio is greater than 1.633, the atoms are elongated along the c -axis...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htpa.9781627083461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-346-1
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... is the height of the deviation from flatness, and L is the distance between peaks of deviations, assuming a sinusoidal wave. Because stainless in sheet form is usually reflective, small deviations from flatness can be very visible. A good standard for flatness that precludes visible distortion is five I...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htpa.t53310167
EISBN: 978-1-62708-346-1
... a x A p ( h c ) ideal pyramid: A p = G 2 h c 2 Area A A s ( h ) is the surface up to the distance, h = h c + h e , from the tip of the indenter A p ( h c ) is the projected contact area up to the calculated distance, h c , from...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tt2.t51060001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-355-3
...). When the stress rises high enough, the stress-strain behavior will cease to be linear and the strain will not disappear completely on unloading. The strain that remains is called plastic strain. The first plastic strain usually corresponds to the first deviation from linearity. (For some materials...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850334
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... modulus). In the elastic region Hooke’s law is obeyed. If a sample is loaded in this elastic region and the load is then removed, the sample returns to its original length. Higher loads produce plastic deformation and deviation from linear behavior. If a sample is loaded to produce plastic deformation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... not previously attempted. Simple, statistical analysis of average deviation of calculated result from experimental measurement in “real,” highly alloyed, multicomponent alloys has demonstrated that CALPHAD methods can provide predictions for phase equilibria whose accuracy lies close to that of experimental...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... deviation from print tolerance appears as a line of dashes to the left or right of center. A deviation outside of tolerance limits displays asterisks to flag its condition. Such a report is useful in that it gives a quick visual indication of the measurement of the casting. Fig. 4 Example layout...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110132
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
.... Furthermore, because a failure or defect is also an “abnormal” point deviating from a “known good” unit waveform, additional techniques for analyzing waveforms were developed unique to failure analysis applications. For example, by comparing the failure unit waveform with the good unit waveform, the failure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... imposed intentionally by potentiostats or galvanostats. Regardless of the cause of the electron flow at the interface, deviations of the half-cell potentials along the interface from their equilibrium values are functions of the current density. These deviations reflect the polarization behavior...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... widely used early methods for the determination of phase boundaries is cooling curves. The temperature of a sample is monitored while allowed to cool naturally from an elevated temperature in the liquid field. The shape of the resulting curves of temperature versus time are then analyzed for deviations...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tt2.t51060137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-355-3
... processes cause molecular alignments, and partly because ordered structural entities may develop during the cooling stage. The property values derivable from such specimens often differ from what might be expected on the basis of isotropic idealizations, and, because of their limited range, the data...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... that there is often some deviation from the ideal ratio of c / a = 1.633. If the ratio is less than 1.633, it means that the atoms are compressed in the c -axis direction, and if the ratio is greater than 1.633, the atoms are elongated along the c -axis. In these situations, the hcp structure can no longer...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 23 January 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stemsem.t56000001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-292-1
..., but with electrons that have transmit- ted through the sample. Because electrons are charged particles and therefore interact strongly with matter, it is likely that some of the probe electrons will deviate from their original trajectories (i.e., scatter) as they pass through the sample. In addition to scattering...