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Crater corrosion

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Published: 01 January 2000
Fig. 8 Crater formation in a steel substrate beneath a void in a noble metal coating, for example, passive chromium or copper. Corrosion proceeds under the noble metal, the edges of which collapse into the corrosion pit. More
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Published: 01 March 2001
Fig. 12 Crater formation in a steel substrate beneath a void in a noble metal coating, for example, passive chromium or copper. Corrosion proceeds under the noble metal, the edges of which collapse into the corrosion pit. More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
.... Fig. 17 (a) Unetched and (b) etched cross sections of a type 304 stainless steel weldment showing chloride pitting attack along a crevice by a lack-of-fusion defect. Service environment: hot tap water Crater Corrosion Type 347 stainless steel is sometimes subject to a type of crevice...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
...: Particles of surface oxides that have not melted and are mixed into the weld metal Lack of fusion (LOT): A condition in which fusion is less than complete Lack of penetration (LOP): A condition in which joint penetration is less than that specified Craters: Depressions at the termination...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... (a) crater formed on the outer surface by the impact of fly ash particles, 110×; and (b) twins (Neumann bands) formed in ferrite grains across the section, 400× Microstructural studies also showed marginal corrosion damage on the inner and outer surfaces of the tube with a thin adherent scale...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stmflw.t59390039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-459-8
... effective separating films of relatively high shear strength are present). 4.4 Chemical Wear Chemical wear is not material loss due to straight chemical attack (corrosion or chemical milling), but rather loss due to tribochemical reactions. In contrast, in the related manufacturing processes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... Abstract This chapter discusses the basic principles of corrosion, explaining how and why it occurs and how it is categorized and dealt with based on the appearance of corrosion damage or the mechanism of attack. It explains where different forms of corrosion are likely to occur and identifies...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... surface formed as a result of the iron-zinc alloy phases throughout the coating. However, galvanneal coatings are more prone to cratering during e-coating ( Table 7 ). Conversely, corrosion resistance can be slightly reduced because of the increased iron in the coating from the iron-zinc phases...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... develop across the width of the grains, and the grains become increasingly undulated. Eventually, the undulations develop into craters and material is lost by necking of the rims of the craters. Fig. 1 Scanning electron micrographs of polycrystalline aluminum exposed to vibratory cavitation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... from those formed by particle erosion. Cavitation produces rounded microcraters in the surface, while particle erosion produces imprints of the impacting particles. Crater formation moves surface material to the edges of the craters, and these extrusions eventually break off, causing loss of material...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... with fast evaporating lacquers, such as vinyls and chlorinated rubbers Use slower evaporating solvent, or apply when cooler. After cure, sand and apply another coat. Cratering Also called pitting. Small, uniform indentations in film Air pockets trapped in wet film during spraying Sand or blast...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... complex grades, multigrades, or steel-cutting grades. Adding TaC to WC-TiC-Co alloys partially overcomes the deleterious effect of TiC on the strength of WC-Co alloys. Tantalum carbide also resists cratering and improves thermal shock resistance. The latter property is particularly useful in applications...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... joint Excessive bead convexity and bead reinforcement Excessive bead concavity and undersized welds Sharp undercut and overlap at the weld toe Cracks—hot or cold, longitudinal or transverse, crater and at weld toe Gas porosity Incomplete fusion Arc strike Spatter Subsurface...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... known as lack of penetration): A condition in which joint penetration is less than that specified Craters: Depressions at the termination of a weld bead or in the molten weld pool Melt-through: A condition resulting when the arc melts through the bottom of a joint welded from one side...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... turbines result in creep deformation, cracking, and failure of nickel-base superalloy turbine blades. A peculiar failure of electric traction rails was reported in the early 1950s ( Ref 14 ). The rails failed in fatigue, originating from deep craters on the bottom surface. The craters had formed due...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... and angular, this rotation (spinning) can cause chip formation from the target; material is removed. Fig. 4.11 The mechanism of damage in solid particle erosion When all the target area receives indenting or rotation strikes, intersecting craters end up with slivers of material separating them...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stmflw.9781627084598
EISBN: 978-1-62708-459-8
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... processes, as described subsequently. Figure 10 shows how a sharp cutting tool can wear. Along the rake surface, the chip motion and high normal stress have produced a wear scar called crater wear. Along the clearance surface, the tool motion and high normal stress have increased the area of contact...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... Abstract Stainless steel base metals and the welding filler metals used with them are chosen on the basis of suitable corrosion resistance for the intended application. This article describes several constitution diagrams that that have been developed to predict microstructures and properties...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Abstract This chapter discusses the effects of corrosion on boiler tube surfaces exposed to water and steam. It describes the process of corrosion, the formation of scale, and the oxides of iron from which it forms. It addresses the primary types of corrosion found in boiler environments...