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Crater corrosion

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... Stainless Steels Mechanism Avoiding Intergranular Corrosion Sensitized HAZs in Type 304 and 316 Stainless Steels Low-Temperature Sensitization Knife-Line Attack Intergranular SCC Pitting Corrosion Crevice Corrosion Crater Corrosion Example 1: Weld Craters in Stainless Steel...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... from an adjacent tube Fig. 6.128 Low-temperature reheater tube showing longitudinal rupture opening Fig. 6.129 SEM image of outer surface adjacent to rupture lip showing erosion damage, 500× Fig. 6.130 Optical micrographs showing (a) crater formed on the outer surface...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
...-affected layers consisting mainly of vaporized and redeposited metal are present. Cratering occurs and is dependent on factors such as energy, quality of optics, nature and thickness of material. Finish data not available. Incident surface slightly cratered and walls of 3.175 mm (0.125 in.) holes contain...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... penetration is less than that specified Craters: Depressions at the termination of a weld bead or in the molten weld pool Melt-through: A condition resulting when the arc melts through the bottom of a joint welded from one side Spatter: Metal particles expelled during welding and deposited...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... surface formed as a result of the iron-zinc alloy phases throughout the coating. However, galvanneal coatings are more prone to cratering during e-coating ( Table 7 ). Conversely, corrosion resistance can be slightly reduced because of the increased iron in the coating from the iron-zinc phases...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... strength and high in resistance to abrasion and cratering. It is used extensively for high-speed, light-duty finishing. The complex grade highest in cobalt content and in TaC is preferred for hot-work tools, in both cutting and shaping of metals. Thermal Conductivity Coefficients of Thermal Expansion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... degradation. (b) Photograph showing blistering and/or peeling (undercutting) of paint where exposed steel is rusting. Fig. 12 Crater formation in a steel substrate beneath a void in a noble metal coating, for example, passive chromium or copper. Corrosion proceeds under the noble metal, the edges...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... to the surface. Also during this early stage, the grain boundaries become delineated, coarse slip bands develop across the width of the grains, and the grains become increasingly undulated. Eventually, the undulations develop into craters and material is lost by necking of the rims of the craters. Fig. 1...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
...Abstract Abstract Organic coatings (paints and plastic or rubber linings), metallic coatings, and nonmetallic inorganic coatings (conversion coatings, cements, ceramics, and glasses) are used in applications requiring corrosion protection. These coatings and linings may protect substrates...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
... to chemical reactions at the crack tip as well as to lubricant viscosity effects). Fig. 11 Fractograph showing the advanced stages of macropitting fatigue for a helical pinion tooth When fully developed, the craters exist at a depth comparable to that of the maximum alternating Hertzian shear...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... removal. Cavitation is similar to particle erosion in its damage. However, surface features formed by cavitation are different from those formed by particle erosion. Cavitation produces rounded microcraters in the surface, while particle erosion produces imprints of the impacting particles. Crater...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... 14 ). The rails failed in fatigue, originating from deep craters on the bottom surface. The craters had formed due to short circuiting. Failures are also caused by abuses in service. It is an aphorism that if a product can be abused, it will be. Many a failure has been witnessed in various walks...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
.... 4.11 The mechanism of damage in solid particle erosion Fig. 4.12 Crater shape produced by a continued stream of particles with a 90-degree impingement angle Fig. 4.13 Effect of impingement angle on erosion of various materials Fig. 4.14 Protection from steam erosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.9781627083010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... it does not melt. Welded structures that require corrosion resistance but not high strength often will not need PWHT and can thus avoid PWHT cracking. However, if they are placed in service at elevated temperature, they may still crack during the initial heat-up cycle. The circular patch test...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130503
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... Cracks (b)  a. Longitudinal(12a) W, HAZ, BM  b. Transverse(12b) W, HAZ, BM  c. Crater(12c) W  d. Throat(12d) W  e. Toe(12e) HAZ  f. Root(12f)  g. Underbead and HAZ(12g) (a) W, weld; HAZ, heat-affected zone; BM, base metal. (b) See Fig. 1 . Source: Ref 1...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... the first beam is sputtering a crater, the second beam is progressively analyzing the crater bottom. The key advantage of the dual beam mode is the possibility to adjust the analysis and the sputter parameter independently, e. g. the combination of a low energy sputter beam of O 2 or Cs to increase...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... anything, including all the various types of steel. Type 1020 steel is a reference material for the ASTM G76 solid particle erosion test. The standard test using 50 μm aluminum oxide produces a deep crater in any steel, carbon alloy, and tool. The standard test is 90° impingement, and only cemented...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... on the surface develop areas resembling craters on the finished product. Examination of the artist’s conception sketch shown in Fig. 11.3 indicates the surface as a result of a nonuniform cleaning operation. Scale is removed from titanium products by several mechanical methods. Abrasive methods...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the effects of corrosion on boiler tube surfaces exposed to water and steam. It describes the process of corrosion, the formation of scale, and the oxides of iron from which it forms. It addresses the primary types of corrosion found in boiler...