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Corrosion products

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Published: 01 December 2018
Fig. 5.9 Typical SEM fractographs showing (a) crack filled with corrosion products in a carbon steel tube, 100×; (b) striations in a fatigue failure, 250×; (c) dimples in ductile failure, 500×; (d) cleavage facets in a brittle fracture, 1000×; (e) brittle fracture with an intergranular mode More
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Published: 01 December 2018
Fig. 5.21 X-ray diffraction profile for corrosion products formed on steel surface. Source: Ref 5.18 More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 6.34 (a) Scanning electron backscattered image of the corrosion products formed on alloy AC66 tested at 800 °C for 300 h in air-2Cl 2 and the x-ray maps showing elemental distribution for (b) chlorine, (c) chromium, (d) oxygen, (e) iron, and (f) nickel. Source: Ref 42 More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 6.35 (a) Scanning electron backscattered image of the corrosion products formed on alloy 690 tested at 800 °C for 300 h in air-2Cl 2 and the x-ray maps showing elemental distribution for (b) chlorine, (c) chromium, (d) iron, (e) oxygen, and (f) aluminum. Source: Ref 42 More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 6.37 (a) Scanning electron backscattered image of the corrosion products formed on alloy 59 tested at 650 °C for 300 h in air-2Cl 2 and the x-ray maps showing elemental distribution for (b) chromium, (c) chlorine, (d) molybdenum, (e) iron, (f) nickel, and (g) oxygen. Source: Ref 43 More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 6.38 (a) Scanning electron backscattered image of the corrosion products formed on alloy HR160 tested at 800 °C for 300 h in air-2Cl 2 , and the x-ray maps showing elemental distribution for (b) chromium, (c) chlorine, (d) silicon, (e) oxygen, and (f) nickel. Source: Ref 43 More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 10.74 Scanning electron micrograph showing the corrosion products (general corrosion scales and internal corrosion phases) on Type 304H superheater at the severely wasted area. The EDX analysis showed that the corrosion product (area 1) was Cr-Fe-rich sulfide (45.5Cr-33.5Fe-9.2Ni-8.6S More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 13.21 Scanning electron micrographs showing (a) the corrosion products formed on the T-11 superheater tube sample at the tube bend ( Fig. 13.20 ) and (b) the corrosion products on area C at high magnification. EDX analysis showed essentially iron with tiny chromium peak. Area C showed More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 14.8 Corrosion products formed on the metal surface as well as internal corrosion products formed in alloy HR3C with no external strain imposed on the test specimen when tested at 600 °C (1110 °F) for 2100 h in CO-32H 2 -4CO 2 -0.2H 2 S. Note: the tested specimen surface was plated prior More
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Published: 01 October 2005
Fig. CH18.3 SEM fractograph showing corrosion products on the fracture surface A shown in Fig. CH18.2 More
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Published: 01 July 2000
Fig. 7.40 Model of positions of corrosion products and reaction paths in pitting of copper in hard water (details can be found in text). Source: ref 57 , 58 More
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Published: 01 December 1989
Fig. 9.22. Schematic illustration of corrosion products found at areas typical of the three types of hot corrosion ( Ref 33 ). More
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Published: 01 July 2000
Fig. 1.3 Uniform corrosion with solid corrosion product deposit. Details of the formation of oxide species are not considered at this point. More
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Published: 01 August 1999
Fig. 26 Schematic of the variable effects of corrosion product wedging on SCC growth curves in a K -decreasing test. Solid lines: measured curve. Dashed lines: estimated true curve excluding the effect of corrosion product wedging. Asterisks indicate temporary crack arrests. More
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Published: 01 January 2000
Fig. 20 End-grain attack (corrosion) or wrought stainless steel products. (a) Schematic of a stainless steel plate showing long lines of inclusions and stringers. (b) Elongation of holes in stainless steel plate at exposed end grain. In this particular case, the corrodent attacked the exposed More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Abstract This chapter discusses the particular corrosion problems encountered and the methods of control used in petroleum production and the storage and transportation of oil and gas up to the refinery. It begins by describing those aspects of corrosion that tend to be unique to corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Abstract This chapter provides a detailed account of corrosion inhibitors for oil and gas production. It begins by discussing some of the demands of competitive industry on inhibitor formulations. It then describes the varying characteristics of oil wells, gas wells, water injection systems...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... Abstract This chapter familiarizes readers with the basic concepts of corrosion, discussing chemical reactions, ion transfer mechanisms, electrochemical processes and variables, and the formation of solid corrosion products. It presents a simple but effective teaching tool, the elementary...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... Abstract This chapter discusses the techniques applicable to the diagnosis of corrosion failures, including visual and microscopic examination of corroded surfaces and microstructure; chemical analysis of the metal, corrosion products, and bulk environment; nondestructive evaluation methods...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... the important characteristics of metals with respect to corrosion, namely the metallurgical characteristics, the inherent tendency to corrode, and the tendency to form insoluble corrosion products. The important characteristics of aqueous solutions with respect to corrosion are then addressed...