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Copper ores

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... specifically copper alloys) gave birth to this first practical age of metallurgy. Copper, like gold and silver, existed in a native or natural state. Ores that were more than 99.9% pure were found in many parts of the world. Some civilizations, such as the moundbuilding Indians of the Ohio plains, found...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pb.t5123000x
EISBN: 978-1-62708-351-5
... [Pliny, Natural History , xxxiii 29 (see Rackham, 1952 ); Wolters 1983]. A powdered copper-bearing ore, such as malachite, is heated with a flux in a reducing environment, generally provided by the organic gum, which is used to hold the granules in place. This operation yielded finely divided copper...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... of domestic beryllium-copper. In 1936, the Beryllium Corporation moved its plant from Marysville, MI, to Reading, PA. The commercial-scale beryllium ore producers as of 1940 [ NSRB 1953 ] were: The Beryllium Corporation of Pennsylvania, Reading, PA (later, the Beryllium Corporation), processed ore...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... of energy that is used to produce copper from ore. In general, the value of recycled copper is approximately 90% that of virgin copper. The primary sources are electrical wiring, plumbing pipes, and fixtures. Control of the scrap is important. To produce new wire, only high-conductivity (highly pure) scrap...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... metric tons from 1985 to 1989. Chinese exports also included beryllium hydroxide and beryllium-copper master alloy, with Japan and the United States as the most logical customers. Many of the import shipments of ore from China contained 30 to 70 wt% of its beryllium content in an acid-soluble form...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ps.t6244000x
EISBN: 978-1-62708-352-2
... than design since pure lead does not wet copper at all readily. The Romans are known to have produced lead separately from silver, taking advantage of the fact that this metal can be easily extracted from its sul de ore, galena, simply by roasting the mineral in air [Tylecote 1976]. The earliest...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... it. Typical cases are the scrap of coated steel products (tin foil and galvanized products, which will bring tin, zinc, and eventually aluminum into the charge). Furthermore, copper electrical conductors in cars and appliances are an important source of contamination of the scrap with this metal. Several...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... Electric Smelting and Aluminum Company in Cleveland. The Cowles had a process for making an alloy of copper containing aluminum, which was called aluminum bronze. Hall joined the Cowles’ company at their plant in Lockport, New York, with a salary of $75 a month for three months. If his experiments were...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.atia.t59340019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-427-7
... to the end product. Alcan and Alcoa were among the best examples, as outlined in Chapter 1, “Introduction—Aluminum as an Industrial Material” in this book. However, by 2017, mining companies with interests in iron ore, copper, zinc, and other mining controlled the vast majority of aluminum smelting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
... the charge. Fig. 2.4 Schematic of a cupola installation Air for combustion is supplied through tuyeres (copper nozzles with a water-cooling jacket) from an annular wind box in the combustion zone. A “tap hole” in the refractory brick with a spout allows the molten metal to flow out...
Book Chapter

By Kenneth A. Walsh
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... Abstract Beryllium, despite its relatively simple atomic structure, possesses a wide range of useful engineering properties. It has the highest strength-to-weight ratio and modulus of elasticity among structural metals and is an important alloy addition in copper, nickel, and aluminum alloys...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... the first metal used by man. It could be found in small quantities in the metallic state, and, being soft, it was readily shaped into ornaments and weapons during the Bronze Age. In addition, many copper ores can easily be reduced to the metal, and since these ores often contain other minerals, it is very...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... Abstract This chapter describes some of the chemical processes that have been developed to extract beryllium from different types of ore. It covers the Kjellgren-Sawyer sulfate method, the Degussa method, Copaux-Kawecki fluoride extraction, solvent extraction, and leaching and settling. It also...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... discussions on steel chemical compositions. Figure 1.4 lists the main functions of alloying elements as normally accepted. Besides these, elements coming from scrap (such as copper, arsenic, antimony, zinc, and lead) and those coming from the atmosphere (such as nitrogen, hydrogen, and oxygen, the last...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... in England in the development of ironmaking. industrial revolution ironmaking metal discovery The history of metals in America started in antiquity when man discovered particles of gold, silver, and copper in riverbeds where they had washed down from the mountains. These particles of soft metals...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230493
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... Abstract This chapter describes a process for recovering beryllium from industrial waste associated with beryllium-copper production. It presents several detailed flowsheets along with typical operating parameters such as flow rates, chemical concentrations, particle sizes, and compositional...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
..., improved corrosion resistance (e.g., nickel-chromium multilayer coatings, and cadmium and zinc sacrificial coatings), wear resistance (e.g., hard chromium coatings), electrical properties (e.g., copper and silver), and aesthetic appearance (e.g., bright nickel or decorative chromium plating) Electroless...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060369
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... bronzes Copper and copper-nickel alloys Silver solder Nickel (passive) Alloy 600 (passive) Alloy 400 Titanium Type 304 and 316 stainless steels (passive) Silver, gold, platinum Most cathodic (noble) and least susceptible to corrosion Source: Adapted from Ref 15.2...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stmflw.t59390001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-459-8
... hammered into thin sheets and then shaped into jewelry and household utensils as early as 5000 B.C . These metals, and, later, copper reduced from ores, were readily cold worked without a lubricant. Some unintentional lubrication may have occurred, for instance, when sheet was driven into asphalt...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240547
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... world’s supply. Nickel-copper-iron sulfide ore is crushed and ground, and the iron sulfide is separated magnetically. The remaining nickel and copper ores are then separated by flotation. There are three viable processes for refining nickel: pyrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy, and vapormetallurgy...