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Published: 01 May 2018
FIG. 9.10 The Boeing 777 is the first commercial plane to use a titanium alloy (Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al) for landing gear. Source: Wikimedia Commons/Altair78. More
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Published: 01 August 2005
Fig. A7.3 Plane-strain fracture toughness for 25.4 to 38.1 mm (1 to 1.5 in.) thick commercial aluminum alloys. Source: Ref A7.6 More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... that influence the results. The predominant mode of plastic deformation in titanium is slip. The most common crystallographic slip planes in hexagonal (alpha) titanium are basal, prismatic, and pyramidal. The planes involved during deformation depend on alloy composition, temperature, grain size, and crystal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
..., the bonding in the basal plane appears to be metallic in nature, while the bonding perpendicular to the basal plane has a covalent character. This bonding anisotropy leads to the anisotropy of ambient-temperature elastic constants and slip properties, described as follows. Some of the physical properties...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.atia.t59340245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-427-7
... Fig. 11.1 Aluminum aircraft. (a) German Junkers F13, circa 1919 (b) U.S. Douglas DC3, circa 1935. Source: Alcoa, Inc. archives Commercial Aircraft Airline fleets today encompass a variety of aircraft ranging from commuter planes to jumbo jets. The primary concerns for aircraft, after...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
.... 9.9 ). Each of the 100 planes built required 100 tons of titanium. FIG. 9.9 The B-1 Lancer bomber was built to withstand speeds of 2000 mph. The heat generated required titanium alloys, mainly Ti-6Al-4V. The most recent commercial aircraft designs use substantial amounts of titanium...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... (hexagonal close-packed, tetragonal, etc.) fracture in somewhat similar ways, their fracture modes are more difficult to describe and are not covered here. First, it must be recognized that almost all commercial solid metals are polycrystalline (i.e., having many crystals) in structure. Each individual...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540357
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... in commercial alloys are hexagonal close-packed (hcp), body-centered cubic (bcc), and face-centered cubic (fcc) structures (drawings 10, 13, and 14, respectively, in Fig. A1.3 ). The packing atoms in the fcc and hcp lattices result in a closest-packed plane, where all adjoining atoms on a plane...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170234
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... of about 480 °C (900 °F). The term maraging is derived from martensite age hardening and denotes the age hardening of a low-carbon, iron-nickel lath martensite matrix. Commercial maraging steels are designed to provide specific levels of yield strength from 1030 to 2420 MPa (150 to 350 ksi). Some...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
..., covering basic principles, implementation, and advantages and disadvantages in various applications. axisymmetric upsetting finite element method forging plane-strain slab method upperbound method 9.1 Introduction The major process variables involved in forging can be summarized...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... than most commercial irons. (It is common to use the term μm for micron, and 25 μm = 0.001 in. = 1 mil. The thickness of aluminum foil and the diameter of a hair are both approximately 50 μm.) Fig. 1.1 Optical microscope image of the surface of a polished and etched iron bar showing grains...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110042
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... a plane wave will strike and slow on one side first and thereby itself be bent and curved, turned and focused, giving rise to the optics industry and microscopy. The ratio of the speed of light in vacuum to the speed in some other medium is important to optics and is known as the index of refraction...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... reported for grade S-65B and S-200E are shown in Fig. 17.6 and 17.7 for strength and ductility, respectively [ Smith et al. 1985 ]. The large increase in ductility starting at approximately 200 °C is attributed to a shift from basal-plane cleavage to a shear fracture. The peak in ductility and its...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
... with optical microscopy is what type of information is desired. This question determines how the composite should be sectioned, documented, and labeled. In most analyses, the composite is sectioned through the z -axis and viewed normal to the zx or zy plane or an angle in between. In other cases...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... commercial all-metal passenger aircraft in the United States, the Ford Trimotor ( FIG. 8.12 ). About 200 Ford Trimotor planes were built in the late 1920s and early 1930s, but production ceased as the Great Depression deepened and the aircraft design, which carried 10 to 12 passengers, became obsolete...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1983
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mlt.t62860237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-348-5
... arrangement of the atoms has been broken in specific ways ( Fig. 7.2 ). Figure 7.2a shows one partial plane of a crystal with no dislocations. The circles indicate atomic positions. This atomic arrangement is imagined to extend infinitely in the plane of the figure and to be replicated infinitely in both...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540397
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... as a function of material tensile yield strength. Comparison of several 2000 and 7000 series aluminum alloys. Source: Ref A7.1 Fig. A7.3 Plane-strain fracture toughness for 25.4 to 38.1 mm (1 to 1.5 in.) thick commercial aluminum alloys. Source: Ref A7.6 Fig. A7.4 Plane-stress fracture...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... / 2 . Austenite also may be characterized as a structure made up of planes of closest atomic packing stacked in a sequence that repeats every three layers. The orientation of the close-packed {111} planes relative to the unit cell may be readily identified because each (111) plane is defined...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hss.t52790193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-356-0
... Stainless steel Oneida tableware circa late 1960s. Courtesy of D. Gymburch Kitchenware Polarware, the first stainless steel cookware in America, was manufactured by The Polar Ware Company, Sheboygan, Wisconsin. It was primarily for commercial use. The first known public display of stainless steel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tt2.t51060101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-355-3
... on the types of formability tests is also provided. The chapter discusses the processes involved in uniaxial and plane-strain tensile testing. Examples include the uniaxial tensile test and the plane-strain tensile test which are subsequently described. bending shear fracture sheet metal formability...