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Cold-rolled steel

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Published: 01 August 1999
Fig. 7.2 (Part 1) Spheroidization of pearlite in 0.6% C normalized and cold-rolled steels. 0.61C-0.08Si-0.6Mn (wt%). (a) Normalized from 860 °C. 185 HV. Picral. 1000×. (b) Normalized from 860 °C, reduced 25% by cold rolling. 265 HV. Picral. 1000×. (c) Normalized from 860 °C, reduced 25 More
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Published: 01 August 1999
Fig. 7.3 (Part 1) Spheroidization of pearlite in 0.6% C normalized and cold-rolled steels. 0.61C-0.08Si-0.6Mn (wt%). (a) Normalized from 860 °C, reduced 75% by cold rolling. 340 HV. Picral. 1000×. (b) Normalized from 860 °C, reduced 75% by cold rolling, heated at 650 °C for 1 h, air cooled More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 3.11 Microstructure of a cold-rolled, low-carbon steel sheet. Cold-worked (a) 30%, (b) 50%, (c) 70%, and (d) 90%. Marshall’s etch. 500× More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 12.31 AISI 302 stainless steel cold rolled and recrystallization annealed for 1 h at 704 °C (1300 °F). Recrystallized grains with low dislocation density surrounded by a matrix still work hardened, with high dislocation density. The recrystallized grain to the left of the image has More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 12.38 AISI 1006 steel hot rolled, pickled, and subjected to a skin pass cold work (a small cold reduction of the surface to guarantee good surface quality and precise thickness). Equiaxial ferrite and pearlite inside the plate. On the surface region, the ferrite grains are elongated More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 13.14 (Part 1) Microstructural evolution of a dual phase steel hot rolled, cold worked, and subjected to austenitization inside the critical zone for the times and temperatures indicated in (a), (b), and (c). Etchant: LePera. Martensite: light; ferrite: gray; pearlite: dark. (d), (e More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 13.14 (Part 2) Microstructural evolution of a dual phase steel hot rolled, cold worked, and subjected to austenitization inside the critical zone for the times and temperatures indicated in (a), (b), and (c). Etchant: LePera. Martensite: light; ferrite: gray; pearlite: dark. (d), (e More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 16.9 AISI 409A steel cold rolled with 85% reduction and annealed at 850 °C (1560 °F). Equiaxial ferrite. Etchant: Vilella. Courtesy of C. S. Viana, EEIMVR-UFF. Volta Redonda, RJ, Brazil. Source: Ref 8 More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 3.16 Microstructure of cold-rolled, interstitial-free steel sheet that has been annealed for 1 min at (a) 649 °C (1200 °F), (b) 676 °C (1250 °F), (c) 704 °C (1300 °F), and (d) 732 °C (1350 °F). Marshall’s etch. 400× More
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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 12.5 Microstructure of 0.08% C-1.45% Mn-0.21% Si steel. (a) Cold rolled 50%. (b) Annealed at 700 °C (1290 °F) for 20 min. Light micrographs, nital etch. Source: Ref 12.9 More
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Published: 01 June 2008
Fig. 19.11 Properties of cold rolled plain carbon steel More
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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 5.13 Forming limit diagrams for various cold rolled DP steel grades. Source: Ref 5.1 More
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Published: 01 November 2012
Fig. 10 Cracked cementite particle in a cold rolled low-carbon steel (approximately 0.1% C). High-magnification view of a cracked cementite particle showing multiple cracks and shattering. Courtesy of R. Holman, University of Tennessee. Source: Ref 3 More
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Published: 31 December 2020
Fig. 8 A low-carbon sheet steel in the (a) as cold rolled unannealed condition, (b) partially recrystallized annealed condition, and (c) fully recrystallized annealed condition. Marshall’s etchant, original magnification: 1000× More
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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 12.4 Recrystallization from annealing. (a) Microstructure of a 0.003% C steel cold rolled 60%. (b) Microstructure of the cold-rolled steel after annealing at 540 °C (1000 °F) for 2 h. About 80% of the cold-worked microstructure has recrystallized to fine equiaxed ferrite grains. Light More
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Published: 01 October 2012
Fig. 3.17 Effect of iron, nickel, and copper contaminant levels on ASTM B117 salt spray corrosion rates in AZ91 alloy versus cold-rolled steel and 380 die-cast aluminum. Source: Ref 3.8 More
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Published: 01 August 1999
Fig. 3 Cosmetic corrosion performance for aluminum alloys, galvanized steel (Galv), and cold-rolled steel (CRS) in various test environments, as quantified by total area of corrosion damage. Because for most environments, the magnitude of attack for steels is considerably greater than More
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Published: 01 August 1999
min at 600 °C, then cooled at 100 °C/h. 110 HV. 1% nital + picral. 2000×. (i) Variation in hardness with subcritical annealing temperature for the cold-rolled steel strip shown in Fig. 4.6 and 4.7 . More
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Published: 01 August 1999
Fig. 6 Schematic of (a) corrosion test specimens and (b) crevice corrosion test results for cold-rolled steel (CRS), 60 g/m 2 electrogalvanized steel (EG60), and three aluminum alloys (2036, 5182, and 6111). The crevice corrosion is measured in terms of the maximum depth of pitting attack More
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Published: 01 August 1999
min at 600 °C, then cooled at 100 °C/h. 110 HV. 1% nital + picral. 2000×. (i) Variation in hardness with subcritical annealing temperature for the cold-rolled steel strip shown in Fig. 4.6 and 4.7 . More