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Clay (material)

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
...-based additive manufacturing, including bound-metal deposition and fused-filament fabrication: oxidation-resistant high-temperature alloys, anisotropic structures, submicrometer-scale structures, surface hard materials, and artist metallic clays. Some of the advances discussed include the developments...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... Glasses Residual Stresses Pottery was the first man-made material. The oldest known pottery is dated between 27,000 and 23,000 B.C. Pottery is made by shaping wet clay, drying it, and then firing it at an elevated temperature that changes its chemical structure. There are several forms...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
...; incoming material control; process control of sand preparation and system maintenance; metallic charge materials; product quality control; and melting, metallurgical, and mechanical testing. casting mechanical testing melting metallurgical testing process control product launch process product...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... shrinkage. cardboard dimensional changes wood WOOD IS ONE OF THE FIRST MATERIALS used by man. Trees often are described as being either coniferous (cone bearing) or deciduous (losing leaves in the winter.) However, these descriptions are not mutually exclusive. Larch trees are both deciduous...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... Fig. 10.13 Wear of candidate materials after an 8 h silica tape abrasion test (in accordance with ASTM International G174) Fig. 10.14 Adhesive wear characteristics of some silicon nitride couples in block-on-ring testing, where * indicates thermal spray coatings Fig. 10.11 Wear...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... to enhance mold properties, such as green strength and permeability. These materials include cement, talc, fiberglass, sand, clay, and other materials. Calcium sulfate exists as two different hydrates and in an anhydrous form. Its dihydrate is known as gypsum (CaSO 4 2H 2 O). Above 130 °C (260 °F), gypsum...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfw.t52860065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-338-6
... that problem, with great savings in plant cost and installation ( Fig. 6.21 ). Fig. 6.21 Clay pipe flange Filament-Wound Boat A car-top boat was made of completely filament-wound material, except for the balsa and brass fittings ( Fig. 6.22 ). It is called a car top because it weighs 60 to 65...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... tooling, slip casting, as well as die compaction. This book treats the science and technology behind these shaping options and details the technologies behind the removal of these polymeric materials and the thermal treatments associated with such a wide range of forming options. 1.1 Powder-Binder...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
... of Fig. 2.2 shows the material flow of pig iron conversion to cast iron. The conversion of pig iron to cast iron occurs by reducing the carbon content and controlling silicon, manganese, phosphorus, and sulfur contents to the desired limits. Gray iron is part of the family of cast irons...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... on the nosepiece. Note the offset diamond tip that is rotated to produce a scribed circle around the feature on the specimen surface. Fig. 5.52 Micrograph of a stage micrometer. 40× Fig. 5.57 A device used to level metallographic specimens on clay for the upright metallurgical microscope...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... casting steel castings vacuum molding Introduction In the manufacture of castings the mold determines the shape and dimensions of the product. The mold is made from refractory material which can resist the abrasive and chemical attack of liquid metal. The mold cavity must retain its shape until...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... Press , 1996 Misa T.J. , A Nation of Steel: The Making of Modern America 1865–1925 , The Johns Hopkins University Press , 1995 Nasaw D. , Andrew Carnegie , Penguin Group , 2006 Standford L. , Meet You in Hell: Andrew Carnegie, Henry Clay Frick, and the Bitter...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... Industries. The blown-film material (75 μm, or 3 mils) consisted of 40% starch, 10% urea, 25% LDPE, and 25% EAA. Biodegradation of the starch component was studied by monitoring carbon dioxide evolution in loam clay (relatively high in organic matter and very fertile) and sandy soil (low in clay and organic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
... first produced using processes that had been in historical use for other metals. It is generally believed that the art of metal casting was first practiced more than 5500 years ago, when shaped cavities were carved or impressed into molds of soft minerals and clay. Naturally occurring copper, silver...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... manufacturing segment in the United States, following only transportation, electronics, and the chemical industries. Ceramics are one of mankind’s most ancient materials. Once humans discovered that clay could be dug up and formed into objects by mixing it with water and firing it, the industry was born...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... environment, poisoning the mussels, barnacles, and other creatures. Replacing the iron and steel with more corrosion-resistant materials, such as fiberglass polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene, and concrete Creating a nonaggressive environment around the steel by backfilling with gravel or clay-free...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
.... Advancements in materials have been responsible for most of today’s prosperity. Two centuries ago the most important materials were wood and clay. Glass and steel, wrought iron, copper, silver, and pewter were available, but were very expensive. There were no plastics, processed aluminum, modern rubber...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... ) and in the development of improved materials and design techniques for stray-current control of electrified rail systems. Improvements include special insulation methods for rail systems ( Ref 8 ) and the use of special materials and design techniques for the embedment of track in the congested downtown portion...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... material. During the middle of the 18th century, a British clockmaker named Benjamin Huntsman was looking for a uniform steel for clock springs when he rediscovered the ancient wootz method of melting small quantities of iron (blister steel in this instance, which had already been carburized) in clay...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... Castings” Introduction Steel is the most versatile engineering material available today. Steel can be easily welded and processed and plays a vital role in maintaining the high standard of living enjoyed by the industrialized nations of the world. The versatility of steel can be easily...