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Chlorine gas

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
...) 0.001 18 21 (70) Nil Saturated 21 (70) Nil Carbon dioxide 100 ... Excellent Carbon tetrachloride 99 Boiling 0.005 Liquid Boiling Nil Vapor Boiling Nil Carbon tetrachloride + 50%H 2 O 50 25 (77) 0.005 Chlorine gas, wet =0.7 H 2 O Room Nil =0.95 H 2 O 140...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
...Abstract Abstract Surface cleanliness requirements depend on which nitrocarburizing process is selected for component treatment. This chapter discusses the processes involved in some of the more commonly used precleaning methods for gas ferritic nitrocarburizing and provides information...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... shows the corrosion rates of alloy 600 in dry chlorine gas as a function of temperature ( Ref 22 ). MTI Publication MS-3 ( Ref 27 ) suggests corrosion guidelines for Ni200, alloy 600, alloy 400, Type 304, and steel in dry chlorine gas applications, as shown in Fig. 6.16 . Corrosion of selected alloys...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... chlorine gas coolers in chloralkali plants, and pressure acid-leach internals for urea processing. Following the 1950s, applications were developed using the engineering-related properties of titanium, such as strength. Ordnance and ballistic armor were used in the 1960s; deep submersible submarine hulls...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... for handling wet chlorine gas. On the other hand, dry chlorine gas is especially harmful. Liquids Unalloyed titanium is highly resistant to the corrosion normally associated with many natural environments, including seawater, body fluids, and fruit and vegetable juices. Titanium exposed continuously...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... ). In Cyclone boilers, the Cyclone barrels burn coal in such a way that most of the coal ash is captured to form a molten slag that coats the inside surface of the Cyclone barrels ( Ref 1 ). The combustion flue gas from the Cyclone barrels then enters the main furnace to generate steam. Stoker-firing...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
..., and this is particularly true for titanium alloys. Chemically active cutting fluids transfer heat efficiently and reduce cutting forces between tool and workpiece. Of course, cutting fluids should not cause any degradation of the properties of the workpiece. Chlorine at one time was considered a suspect element in cutting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
...%), metal (8.1–9.6%), glass (7.7–9.7%), and other (10.3–13.2%) ( Ref 3 ). Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic is a dominant source of chlorine, which is a major corrosive constituent making the combustion environment corrosive to boiler tube materials. Polyvinyl chloride contains about 36 wt% chlorine ( Ref 4...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
..., including seawater, body fluids, and fruit and vegetable juices. Titanium is used extensively for handling salt solutions (including chlorides, hypochlorides, sulfates, and sulfides), wet chlorine gas, and nitric acid solutions. On the other hand, hot concentrated low-pH chloride salts (such as boiling 30...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... electrons, which forms a negatively charged “electron gas.” This electron gas holds together the positively charged atoms. In ionic solids there is a transfer of valence electrons. Cations (metallic ions) have lost valence electrons and become positively charged, while anions (nonmetal ions) are atoms...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... effective chlorinating agent for beryllia than perchlorethylene and phosgene. A fluidized bed of beryllia was chlorinated with carbon tetrachloride vapors, using nitrogen or argon as carrier gas. There was very little difference between the reactivity of hydroxide dried at 110 °C (230 °F) and oxide calcined...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
...-6V-2Sn, Ti-7Al-2Nb-1Ta, Ti-4Al-3Mo-1V, Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V, Ti-6Al-Sn-4Zr-6Mo Distilled water Room temperature Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V, Ti-5Al-2.5Sn, Ti-11.5Mo-6Zr-4.5Sn Chlorine gas 288 550 Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V 10% HCl 35, 340 95, 645 Ti-5Al-2.5Sn, Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V LiCl, KBr, and Na 2 SO 4 solution...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... are most frequently used in turning superalloys. Water-based chemical emulsions have also proved acceptable. Supplying a constant flood of cutting fluid to the cutting area is frequently more important than the composition of the fluid. Sulfurized or chlorinated cutting oils, applied straight...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... excessive oxidation by a reducing gas atmosphere. In approximately 1965, the carbon liner was replaced by a water-cooled jacketed, rammed beryl liner, which could be employed for over a year without replacement. The furnace of the Heroult type is fitted with three 15 cm diameter top electrodes. The furnace...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.9781627083041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
...; in architecture; for military applications (particularly for nonmagnetic hulls of submarines and mine countermeasure vessels); and for equipment in the petroleum, chemical, aerospace, power, and process industries. Environmental initiatives, such as flue gas desulfurization in the power industry and the adoption...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... material such as silicon carbide, with chlorine gas used as a catalyst. The case depth ranges from 0.025 to 10 mm (0.001 to 0.4 in.), depending mainly on the carbon content of the base metal. The case produced contains approximately 14 wt% Si and is essentially an iron-silicon solid solution. The wear...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
..., sulfur, chlorine, potassium, calcium, and iron, whereas the inner surface showed oxygen, magnesium, aluminum, silicon, phosphorus, sulfur, calcium, iron, and copper (in a relatively small quantity). Significant amounts of sulfur and calcium were present on the OD surface. Table 6.14 gives the results...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... and nontemperature activated. The temperature-activated EP additives, such as chlorine, phosphorus, and sulfur, react as the interface temperature increases and generate a film by a chemical reaction with the metal surface. This chemical film helps prevent metal-to-metal contact in stamping operations. EP...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... is soluble in concentrated acids, fuming bases, and some chlorine-containing solvents. Beryllium chlorides are very soluble in water as well as in ethyl alcohol, ethyl ether, chloroform, and carbon disulfide [ Birkbeck et al. 1999 ]. In the presence of chloride ions, beryllium is susceptible to pitting...