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Chlorine gas

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
...) 0.001 18 21 (70) Nil Saturated 21 (70) Nil Carbon dioxide 100 ... Excellent Carbon tetrachloride 99 Boiling 0.005 Liquid Boiling Nil Vapor Boiling Nil Carbon tetrachloride + 50%H 2 O 50 25 (77) 0.005 Chlorine gas, wet =0.7 H 2 O Room Nil =0.95 H 2 O 140...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... at temperatures up to approximately 260 °C (500 °F). Exposure to liquid or gaseous oxygen, nitrogen tetroxide, or red fuming nitric acid can cause titanium to react violently under impact loading. Wet chlorine has essentially no effect on titanium; titanium is used extensively for handling wet chlorine gas...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... chlorine gas coolers in chloralkali plants, and pressure acid-leach internals for urea processing. Following the 1950s, applications were developed using the engineering-related properties of titanium, such as strength. Ordnance and ballistic armor were used in the 1960s; deep submersible submarine hulls...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
..., including seawater, body fluids, and fruit and vegetable juices. Titanium is used extensively for handling salt solutions (including chlorides, hypochlorides, sulfates, and sulfides), wet chlorine gas, and nitric acid solutions. On the other hand, hot concentrated low-pH chloride salts (such as boiling 30...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... that the abrupt increase in the corrosion rate of iron in Cl 2 at temperatures above 250 °C (482 °F) was related to the formation of FeCl 3 . Corrosion of iron in chlorine Table 6.5 Corrosion of iron in chlorine Temperature, °C (°F) Flow rate, (L/min) p Cl2 , atm Diluent gas Test duration, min...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... Abstract Surface cleanliness requirements depend on which nitrocarburizing process is selected for component treatment. This chapter discusses the processes involved in some of the more commonly used precleaning methods for gas ferritic nitrocarburizing and provides information on the methods...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... on gas turbine engine components, just as is done on the larger airframe components. Table 10.5 lists typical parameters for machining Ti-6Al-4V jet engine components, such as fan disks, spacers, shafts, and rotating seals. Some typical machining parameters used to machine airframe bulkheads from...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... as 0.8% ( Ref 20 ). Chlorine in coal converts mostly to HCl during combustion. It is believed that every 0.1% Cl in coal produces approximately 80 ppm HCl in the flue gas ( Ref 21 ). Clarke and Morris ( Ref 18 ) performed gas analysis on the gas samples obtained from the vicinity of the furnace wall...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
...-6V-2Sn, Ti-7Al-2Nb-1Ta, Ti-4Al-3Mo-1V, Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V, Ti-6Al-Sn-4Zr-6Mo Distilled water Room temperature Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V, Ti-5Al-2.5Sn, Ti-11.5Mo-6Zr-4.5Sn Chlorine gas 288 550 Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V 10% HCl 35, 340 95, 645 Ti-5Al-2.5Sn, Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V LiCl, KBr, and Na 2 SO 4 solution...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... excessive oxidation by a reducing gas atmosphere. In approximately 1965, the carbon liner was replaced by a water-cooled jacketed, rammed beryl liner, which could be employed for over a year without replacement. The furnace of the Heroult type is fitted with three 15 cm diameter top electrodes. The furnace...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
...-distribution impeller ( Ref 3 ). Most RDF units burn the fuel in suspension ( Ref 3 ). RDF units also employ moving grates. Combustion gas temperatures are generally at or below approximately 1090 °C (2000 °F) in mass-burning units and approximately 1315 to 1370 °C (2400 to 2500 °F) in RDF units ( Ref 7...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... perchlorethylene and phosgene. A fluidized bed of beryllia was chlorinated with carbon tetrachloride vapors, using nitrogen or argon as carrier gas. There was very little difference between the reactivity of hydroxide dried at 110 °C (230 °F) and oxide calcined from hydroxide at 500 °C (930 °F). The chlorination...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... electrons, which forms a negatively charged “electron gas.” This electron gas holds together the positively charged atoms. In ionic solids there is a transfer of valence electrons. Cations (metallic ions) have lost valence electrons and become positively charged, while anions (nonmetal ions) are atoms...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... in shaping. Broaching Although broaching is one of the more difficult machining operations, it is extensively used on superalloys, because it is often the only practical method of machining the complex contours of blades, disks (wheels), and related components of gas turbines. The successful broaching...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030074
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... acid. An oxidizing environment has a potential that is higher than the potential for hydrogen discharge. This potential may be established by cathodic reactions, such as reduction of dissolved oxygen (O 2 ) from the atmosphere, chlorine gas (Cl 2 ), hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), chromates ( CrO...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
...; in architecture; for military applications (particularly for nonmagnetic hulls of submarines and mine countermeasure vessels); and for equipment in the petroleum, chemical, aerospace, power, and process industries. Environmental initiatives, such as flue gas desulfurization in the power industry and the adoption...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.9781627083041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... flat drawing test (similar to strip drawing test shown in Fig. 7.5 ) ( Ref 7.23 , 7.24 ) and (b) the modified cup drawing test ( Ref 7.25 ). In hot flat drawing test ( Fig. 7.15 ), sheet material is heated in the infrared image furnace to its austenitization temperature under inert gas atmosphere...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... in boiling water becomes covered with bubbles of gas and tarnishes with increase of weight [ Pascal 1958 ]. Dilute and concentrated solutions of hydrochloric acid and dilute solutions of sulfuric acid attack beryllium, with the evolution of hydrogen; weak organic acids, such as acetic, citric...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Siliconizing, the diffusion of silicon into steel, produces wear-resistant cases with hardnesses up to 50 HRC. The process is carried out in the temperature range of 925 to 1040 °C (1700 to 1900 °F). The workpiece is heated in contact with a silicon-bearing material such as silicon carbide, with chlorine gas...