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Chlorides, environment

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride environments. This chapter provides information on the classifications, properties, and general welding considerations of ferritic stainless steels. The emphasis is placed on intergranular corrosion, which is the most common cause of failure in ferritic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
...Abstract Abstract This chapter takes a practical approach to the problem of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) in stainless steels, explaining how different application environments affect different grades of stainless steel. It describes the causes of stress-corrosion cracking in chloride...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... (such as chlorides, bromides, iodides, and fluorides), sulfur-bearing compounds (such as H2S and sulfur-oxyanions), high-temperature and supercritical water, and caustics (such as NaOH), while accounting for temperature, composition, microstructure, properties, environmental contaminants, and other factors...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
..., and Ar-20HCl at 600 °C for 500 h. Source: Ref 50 Fig. 6.56 Thermodynamic equilibrium chlorine partial pressure ( p Cl 2 ) as a function of temperature for several environments (100HCl, Ar-33HCl, and H 2 -30HCl) and several chlorides. Source: Ref 57 Fig. 6.57 Metal loss rate (mm...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... used in power generating applications are subject to molten salt corrosion. This chapter reviews the data relevant to corrosion problems in molten salt environments. It describes the corrosion behavior of steel, aluminum, nickel, and titanium alloys in molten chlorides, molten nitrates, molten...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
..., for SCC to occur: (a) a tensile stress of sufficient magnitude, (b) a potent cracking environment, and (c) a susceptible material. The effects of applied stress on SCC are briefly reviewed in the section “Test Methods” in this chapter. Environmental effects are discussed in some detail in the section...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... the austenite phase, particularly with regard to the precipitation of intermetallic compounds. With the nitrogen addition, it is possible to produce austenitic grades with up to 6% Mo for improved corrosion resistance in chloride environments. Other special grades include the high-chromium grades for high...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
..., and alloying element segregation due to coring produced by weld solidification. However, PREN provides some guidance for alloy selection for service in oxidizing chloride or acidic environments. Among the proprietary stainless steels with a large numerical value of PREN are the superaustenitics, such as 254SMO...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... silicon carbide/6061 aluminum MMCs also retain improved fatigue properties over unreinforced aluminum alloy 6061 in chloride environments ( Fig. 11 ) ( Ref 21 ). It has been suggested that the improved corrosion fatigue properties of silicon carbide/aluminum MMCs are due to an increased resistance...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... Friedman J. , and Hanafee J.E. , 2000 . “ Corrosion/Electrochemistry of Monocrystalline and Polycrystalline Beryllium in Aqueous Chloride Environment ,” Report UCRL-ID-137482, Lawrence Livermore National Lab 10.2172/792322 Hill M.A. , Butt B.P. , and Lillard R.S. , 1996...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... of Passivity and Repassivation , Passivity of Metals , Frankenthal R.P. and Kruger J. , Ed., The Electrochemical Society , 1978 , p 285 – 327 30. Lee I. , “ Polarization and Corrosion Behavior of 316L Stainless Steel and Alloy AL6X in Acid Chloride Environments ,” master’s thesis...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090317
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... decreases, but sensitivity to atmospheric oxygen increases. Alloys of nearly all compositions are susceptible to aqueous environments that contain chloride ions. Fig. 12.1 Effect of composition on physical metallurgy, general corrosion resistance, and environmentally assisted cracking trends...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... for estimating corrosion performance Corrodent variables Environment type (marine, industrial, internal fluid, etc.) Main constituents (identity and amount) Impurities (identify and amount) Temperature pH Degree of aeration Velocity or agitation Pressure Estimated range of each...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... and in the crevice between spatter and base metal. Fig. 17 (a) Unetched and (b) etched cross sections of a type 304 stainless steel weldment showing chloride pitting attack along a crevice by a lack-of-fusion defect. Service environment: hot tap water Fig. 19 Selective attack of a type 317L...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... penetration. Final fracture was brittle. Source: Ref 9 Fig. 8 (a) A type 316 stainless steel pipe section exposed to a high-chloride environment, resulted in stress-corrosion cracking on the external surface. (b) A photomicrograph of a metallographic cross section removed from a location...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... in chloride solutions ( Ref 2 ). Chloride is a relatively small anion with a high diffusivity; it interferes with passivation, and it is ubiquitous as a contaminant. The presence of oxidizing agents in a chloride-containing environment is usually extremely detrimental and will further enhance localized...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... the original to include the precious metals) Partial listing of environments known to cause intergranular corrosion in sensitized austenitic stainless steels Table 2 Partial listing of environments known to cause intergranular corrosion in sensitized austenitic stainless steels Environment...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.9781627083027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030096
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
.... 23 Selective attack of a type 317L stainless steel weldment and chloride stress-corrosion cracking of the adjacent 317L base metal. The environment was a bleaching solution (7 g/L Cl 2 ) at 70 °C (160 °F). Fig. 24 Chloride stress-corrosion cracking of type 304 stainless steel base metal...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... in inorganic environments Environment (a) Weight, % Temperature Corrosion rate °C °F mm/yr mils/yr Aluminum chloride 5, 10 100 212 <0.005 <0.2 25 21 70 0.001 0.04 25 100 212 6.6–50 pitting 260–2000 pitting Barium chloride 5, 20 100 212 0.0025 0.1 Calcium...