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Chemical reactors

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Published: 01 November 2010
Fig. 21.16 Chemical vapor infiltration reactor More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... Abstract Irradiation-assisted stress-corrosion cracking (IASCC) has been a topic of engineering interest since it was first reported in the 1960s, having been observed in stainless steel cladding on light water reactor fuel elements. This chapter summarizes the results of decades...
Book Chapter

By Kenneth A. Walsh
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... electronic structure in its ground state is given as ls 2 2s 2 , which has an outer shell of two s-electrons, characteristic of members of the group IIA family. It chemically operates in the electronic hybrid state of 1s 2 2s 1 2p 1 , which gives it a valence of two. The position of beryllium between lithium...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... In one section of the plant, there were six reactors containing the inflammable chemical cyclohexane at a gage pressure of 8.8 kg/cm 2 and 155 °C (310 °F). By introducing air and catalyst, cyclohexane is oxidized to cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone. The products are later separated by distillation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.t60490329
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
... Toughness Examples of severely temper-embrittled 2¼Cr-1Mo steel removed from operating hydroprocessing reactors (<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="t60490329-ref4">Ref 4</xref>) Table 7.2. Examples of severely temper-embrittled 2¼Cr-1Mo steel removed from operating hydroprocessing reactors ( Ref 4...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... in development of microcracks and microfissures. At the same time, carbon is being removed from iron carbide (Fe 3 C) as a result of this chemical reaction, leading to decarburization in the affected region. The formation of microcracks and microfissures as well as decarburization causes the steel to lose its...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240597
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... be achieved with the Zircaloy alloys. It was developed for use in the pressure tubes of heavy-water reactors. Nonnuclear grades, also referred to as industrial alloys, are used primarily in chemical processing equipment. Zirconium is a reactive metal and has a high affinity for oxygen. When zirconium...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
.... The primary advantage of a vapor-cooled system as compared with a water-base system results from the fact that the former is a closed system. Water towers can be “open” in that the cooling of the water is performed by exposing it to air. In addition to impurities absorbed during this exposure, chemicals...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... or corrodent °C °F Chemical/petrochemical Ethylene steam cracking furnace tubes to 1000 to 1830 Carburization, oxidation Steam reforming tubes to 1000 to 1830 Oxidation, carburization Vinyl chloride crackers to 650 to 1200 Halide gas Hydrocracking heaters, reactors to 550...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... Abstract This chapter reviews weld corrosion in three key application areas: petroleum refining and petrochemical operations, boiling water reactor piping systems, and components used in pulp and paper plants. The discussion of each area addresses general design and service characteristics...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... substrate to provide a smooth surface and control its electrical conductivity. The coated substrate is then chemically vapor deposited using a mixture of silane and hydrogen gases. When the substrate exits the reactor, a thin layer of carbon and silicon carbide is applied to provide improved handleability...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.t60490001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
... of plants and equipment, particularly those in service beyond their design life. This, in turn, requires a knowledge of material failure modes and a proficiency for predicting the near and long term effects of mechanical, chemical, and thermal stressors. This chapter presents a broad overview of the types...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
..., the definition of steel based on this chemical composition limit should be restricted to the so-called carbon steels . In the past, alloys with low carbon content used to be known as irons. In recent decades, the ability of refining processes to systematically attain very low carbon contents has led...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.atia.t59340019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-427-7
... requires significant energy input in the chemical reactors and calcination. But these contributions are small, approximately 10% of the energy required for the smelting operation. The complex physical chemistry of the smelting process involves the production of CO 2 and CO ( Ref 2.4 and 2.5...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... of cast beryllium, the ingot is quite acceptable from the chemical analysis point of view and provides a starting point for subsequent PM operations. The ingot is converted into chips using a lathe and a multihead cutting tool. The chips are then ground to powder using one of several mechanical methods...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... one and the same mineral. The French mineralogist, Hauy, observed their crystallographic similarity and induced Vauquelin in 1797 to determine the possible similar chemical composition of the two minerals. Not only did Vauquelin confirm their chemical identicalness, but in 1798 he discovered...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... for reactor vessels, heat-exchanger shells, separator drums, and piping for processes involving hydrogen at temperatures above 260 °C (500 °F). However, service and inspection data have limited these expectations under conditions of long-term hydrogen exposure on C-0.5Mo steel. As a result, low-alloy steels...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... Abstract Nickel and nickel-base alloys are specified for many applications, such as oil and gas production, power generation, and chemical processing, because of their resistance to stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). Under certain conditions, however, SCC can be a concern. This chapter describes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030074
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... 73.0 … … 1.0 2.5 0.7 7.0 0.04 0.25 max Cu Gas turbine components, pressure vessels, applications in nuclear reactors N08811 Incoloy 800HT 21.0 32.5 … … … 0.4 0.4 46.0 0.08 0.8 Mn, 0.5 Si, 0.4 Cu Industrial furnaces, carburizing equipment N12160 Haynes HR-160 28.0 37.0...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... of construction for a highly sophisticated chemical process reactor. This is especially true when considering critical, unique pieces of equipment in large, single-train, continuous process plants in which a failure would shut down the entire operation. In this case, great effort is expended to select the optimal...