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Chemical processing equipment

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tstap.t56040010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-428-4
... array of products that we see or use every day ( Fig. 7 ). In products ranging from jet engines to automotive components to biomedical implants, thermal spray technology reduces cost and extends useful life. Industrial machinery, chemical process equipment, power generation equipment, and other products...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... of the corrosive environment and equipment operating conditions. This review requires input from knowledgeable process engineers. Precise definition of the chemical environment, including the presence of trace compounds, is vital. For example, the nickel-molybdenum alloy Hastelloy B-2 (UNS N10665) is highly...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
.... Abstract This chapter presents the salts used and the process advantages of salt bath nitriding. It describes bath testing and analysis including the materials and equipment, analysis procedure, and determination of sodium carbonate and sodium cyanate for titration testing of the nitriding salt bath...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... and equipment. The early methods of ferritic nitrocarburizing were accomplished in low-temperature (550 °C, or 1020 °F) salt baths working on the principle of the decomposition of cyanide to cyanate (in the ferrite region). Imperial Chemical Industries in England pioneered the salt bath process, which...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... Abstract This chapter familiarizes readers with the machining characteristics of titanium and the implementation of machining and shaping processes. It explains why titanium alloys are more difficult to machine than other metals and how it impacts the equipment and procedures that can be used...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... is a natural process. Just like water flows to the lowest level, all natural processes tend toward the lowest possible energy states. Thus, for example, iron and steel have a natural tendency to combine with other chemical elements to return to their lowest energy states. In order to return to lower energy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... enamels, general metal finishing Chlorinated rubber Solvent Air dry Water, alkali, acid resistance Abrasion resistance, hardness, gloss, sensitivity to solvents Moderate Maintenance coatings, ship bottom paints, swimming pool paints, chemical process equipment Epoxy Solvent, waterborne...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
...) up to the atmospheric boiling point. However, the presence of small quantities of oxidizing metal ions, such as ferric ion (Fe 3+ ), will result in severe corrosion. Other operating conditions that require definition, especially for equipment used in the chemical-processing industry, include...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... resolution in range 0 to 45 MPa (0 to 6500 psig) Equipment may require special attachment to be provided. Chemical analysis C.1 Spot test(s) Application of selected reagent(s) to surface and detection, by eye or with aid of a microscope, of subsequent reaction Qualitative (sometimes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... Abstract This chapter describes the applications with the greatest impact on titanium consumption and global market trends. It explains where, how, and why titanium alloys are used in aerospace, automotive, chemical processing, medical, and military applications as well as power generating...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
...” anode at a joint in an offshore pipeline Cathodic protection applications have evolved from this traditional base to a much broader variety of applications. These applications include the protection of the internal surfaces of process equipment in the chemical process and pulp and paper...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
.... This progression through cure is shown in Fig. 7.2 . Because cure is a thermally-driven event requiring chemical reactions, thermosets are characterized as having rather long processing times. Due to the high cross-link densities obtained for high-performance thermoset systems, they are inherently brittle unless...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230513
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... . “ Standard on Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for General Industry ,” 29 CFR Part 1910, Subpart I, Federal Register 68 : 14262 – 14263 , Occupational Safety and Health Administration • U.S. Department of Labor , 2004a . “ Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents ,” 29...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
..., inadvertent use of acids and caustic chemicals can cause damage to the boiler. The presence of either of these chemicals can cause corrosion of the boiler tubes. The failure of any process equipment such as heat exchangers and pumps is normally a source for ingress of oils and process chemicals...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... and development at Continental Oil Company. This later work resulted in several installations of anodic protection to control the corrosion of chemical plant equipment ( Ref 3 – 6 ). Simultaneous investigations at the Pulp and Paper Institute of Canada led to installation of anodic protection to protect pulp...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... Abstract Pattern equipment is the tooling utilized to form the mold cavity of a casting. This chapter first discusses the following factors that should be considered for determining the type of pattern equipment: number of castings to be produced, mold processes to be employed, dimensional...
Image
Published: 01 December 2000
Fig. 2.4 A few typical areas of application for high-performance titanium parts. (a) Offshore drilling rig components. (b) Subsea equipment and submersibles requiring ultrastrength. (c) Aircraft. (d) Components for marine and chemical processing operations. More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... operations for producing a steel casting Fig. 1-2 Typical steps involved in making a casting from a green sand mold Pattern Equipment Chapter 11 discusses this important step in the casting process in detail, however, the following points summarize some of the important aspects...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... on the body. Today a great deal of aluminum equipment is used in the food processing industry. Nontoxicity permits aluminum foil wrapping to be used safely in direct contact with food products. Finishability For the majority of applications, aluminum needs no protective coating. Mechanical finishes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... strength when compared to typical carbon steels. They are also ductile and tough at very low subzero temperatures. Type 304 steel is used for chemical processing equipment, food, dairy, and beverage industries, and heat exchangers. Type 316 steel is used in chemical processing, the pulp and paper industry...