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Chemical processing equipment

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tstap.t56040010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-428-4
... array of products that we see or use every day ( Fig. 7 ). In products ranging from jet engines to automotive components to biomedical implants, thermal spray technology reduces cost and extends useful life. Industrial machinery, chemical process equipment, power generation equipment, and other products...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
...Abstract Abstract This chapter presents the salts used and the process advantages of salt bath nitriding. It describes bath testing and analysis including the materials and equipment, analysis procedure, and determination of sodium carbonate and sodium cyanate for titration testing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... and equipment. The early methods of ferritic nitrocarburizing were accomplished in low-temperature (550 °C, or 1020 °F) salt baths working on the principle of the decomposition of cyanide to cyanate (in the ferrite region). Imperial Chemical Industries in England pioneered the salt bath process, which...
Image
Published: 01 December 2000
Fig. 2.4 A few typical areas of application for high-performance titanium parts. (a) Offshore drilling rig components. (b) Subsea equipment and submersibles requiring ultrastrength. (c) Aircraft. (d) Components for marine and chemical processing operations. More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... of the corrosive environment and equipment operating conditions. This review requires input from knowledgeable process engineers. Precise definition of the chemical environment, including the presence of trace compounds, is vital. For example, the nickel-molybdenum alloy Hastelloy B-2 (UNS N10665) is highly...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... CORROSION is a natural process. Just like water flows to the lowest level, all natural processes tend toward the lowest possible energy states. Thus, for example, iron and steel have a natural tendency to combine with other chemical elements to return to their lowest energy states. In order to return...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230513
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... . “ Standard on Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for General Industry ,” 29 CFR Part 1910, Subpart I, Federal Register 68 : 14262 – 14263 , Occupational Safety and Health Administration • U.S. Department of Labor , 2004a . “ Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents ,” 29...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... resolution in range 0 to 45 MPa (0 to 6500 psig) Equipment may require special attachment to be provided. Chemical analysis C.1 Spot test(s) Application of selected reagent(s) to surface and detection, by eye or with aid of a microscope, of subsequent reaction Qualitative (sometimes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
..., inadvertent use of acids and caustic chemicals can cause damage to the boiler. The presence of either of these chemicals can cause corrosion of the boiler tubes. The failure of any process equipment such as heat exchangers and pumps is normally a source for ingress of oils and process chemicals...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... investigations and development at Continental Oil Company. This later work resulted in several installations of anodic protection to control the corrosion of chemical plant equipment ( Ref 3 – 6 ). Simultaneous investigations at the Pulp and Paper Institute of Canada led to installation of anodic protection...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... enamels, general metal finishing Chlorinated rubber Solvent Air dry Water, alkali, acid resistance Abrasion resistance, hardness, gloss, sensitivity to solvents Moderate Maintenance coatings, ship bottom paints, swimming pool paints, chemical process equipment Epoxy Solvent, waterborne...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
...Abstract Abstract Pattern equipment is the tooling utilized to form the mold cavity of a casting. This chapter first discusses the following factors that should be considered for determining the type of pattern equipment: number of castings to be produced, mold processes to be employed...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... the resin is fully cured. This progression through cure is shown in Fig. 7.2 . Because cure is a thermally-driven event requiring chemical reactions, thermosets are characterized as having rather long processing times. Due to the high cross-link densities obtained for high-performance thermoset systems...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... Simplified flow diagram of the basic operations for producing a steel casting Fig. 1-2 Typical steps involved in making a casting from a green sand mold Pattern Equipment Chapter 11 discusses this important step in the casting process in detail, however, the following points summarize...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... of construction for a highly sophisticated chemical-process reactor. This is especially true when considering critical, unique pieces of equipment in large, single-train, continuous process plants in which a failure would shut down the entire operation, with potentially large financial implications that include...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
.... If the layer is not required, it can be removed mechanically (by grinding), or chemically (using a cyanide solution developed by Bell Helicopters) ( Ref 4 ). Fig. 3 Typical two-stage process Other Methods for Controlling Compound Zone Formation Nitriding Potential Control of the compound...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
... completely removes whatever it is supposed to remove. Test solutions can contaminate products or result in an out-of-calibration condition if the test solution is contaminated. Chemical-concentration-monitoring equipment, for example, usually requires calibration with a test solution of known...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
...Abstract Abstract This chapter familiarizes readers with the machining characteristics of titanium and the implementation of machining and shaping processes. It explains why titanium alloys are more difficult to machine than other metals and how it impacts the equipment and procedures that can...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... finishes. Nontraditional Machining Processes Nontraditional machining processes include processes such as electrical discharge machining (EDM), electrochemical machining (ECM), ultrasonic machining (USM), and chemical milling (CM). In these operations, material is removed by a variety of physical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... such as the billet or blank (geometry and material), the tooling (geometry and material), the conditions at the tool/material interface, the mechanics of plastic deformation, the equipment used, the characteristics of the final product, and finally the plant environment where the process is being conducted...