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Chain links

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pb.t51230189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-351-5
... resistance to corrosion also must not differ greatly from that of the joined parts so that any joints remain essentially invisible to the naked eye. Some jewelry manufacture is highly automated, like much other industrial assembly. A good example is silver and gold chain production, in which the links...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
..., and corrosion) are briefly reviewed in this section, and discussions address whether each of the four types of damage can or cannot be created or facilitated as a result of a problem in the heat treating process. Figure 4 has more challenging fragments for fracture analysis. The image shows a chain link...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... tools Hand tools Through Hardening, Tempering Structural members Spring steel Chain links Annealing Aluminum strip Steel strip Seam Welding Oil-country tubular products Refrigeration tubing Line pipe Air Melting of Steels Ingots...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
...-chain molecule that forms when the double bond between carbon atoms in the ethylene molecule (C 2 H 4 ) is replaced by a single bond between adjacent carbon atoms ( Fig. 4 ). Three-dimensional covalent bonding is typified by cross linking that occurs when thermoset plastics are cured. Differences...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780329
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
..., and physical stresses all combine to produce changes in the chemical composition of the material. These changes may take the form of polymer molecular weight reduction due to main-chain cleavage, the formation of cross links, or the formation of oxidized and other functional groups. As the chemical composition...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... polymer chains, the polymer is cross linked. London Dispersion Forces London dispersion forces are the weakest of the secondary bonds with energies of 4 to 8 kJ/mol and an intermolecular distance of 3 to 5 Å ( Ref 21 ). They are the only secondary interactions in linear, nonpolar hydrocarbons...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780146
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... reactions that lead to cross linking or chain degradation. Their replacement (fluoropolymers or aromatic polymers) results in substantially improved stability. The bond strength in polymers produced by step reactions, or condensation polymerization techniques, are usually stronger than those produced...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110262
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Pattern Generation (ATPG) scan chain integrity, where external diagnosis tools convert their output into virtual layers in order to link them to the CAD layout for fault isolation. Acknowledgments CADNav computer-aided design navigation database management failure analysis fault localization...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610327
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... with size of molecules increasing (c) Gelation with full network formed (d) Full cured and crosslinked. Source: Ref 11 Fig. 15 Chain polymerization of polyethylene. Source: Ref 12 Fig. 16 Comparison of amorphous and semicrystalline thermoplastic structures. Source: Ref 12...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... molecular chains. Rubber is vulcanized with sulfur to form cross-links between polyisoprene molecules ( Fig. 9.8 ). The hardness of the rubber increases with the number of cross-links. Fig. 9.8 Cross-linking of rubber molecules by sulfur. Source: Ref 9.1 Sometimes there is more than one...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... not form cross-linking reactions. Their main chains are held together by relatively weak secondary bonds. When heated to a sufficiently high temperature, these secondary bonds break down, and the thermoplastic eventually reaches the fluid state. On cooling, the secondary bonds reform and the thermoplastic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... (−120, −4, and 45 ° F). The introduction of long, flexible side groups, however, has the effect of decreasing T g , due to free volume and chain flexibility effects. Cross Linking The influence of cross linking a polymer may be considered from two different perspectives. At lower degrees...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... Cross-linked amorphous networks of flexible chains Phenol-formaldehyde cured rubber Styrenated polyester 3 Rigid chains PIs (ladder molecules) A Crystalline domains in a viscous network PET Terylene (Dacron) Cellulose acetate B Moderate cross linking, with some crystallinity Chloroprene...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... the Hudson River at a narrow bend at West Point ( FIG. 2.4 ) with the purpose of preventing British ship passage on the river. The chain was made of 750 links. Individual links were hammered out, flattened at the ends, bent around a mandrel, and hammer-welded at the joint. The chain was made up of sections...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... of behavior compared to the thermosetting polymers discussed earlier. Thermosetting polymer is a polymer that can be irreversibly hardened by curing from a soft solid or viscous liquid resin through the application of heat. The heating of thermosets results in large-scale cross linking between polymer chains...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
...., silicates and silicones) are possible. Polymeric materials exhibit strong covalent bonds within each chain. However, individual chains are frequently linked via secondary bonds (e.g., the van der Waals attractive forces). Under applied stresses, polymer chains slide over one another. Failure is the result...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... malleable irons are also used in the railroad industry and in agricultural equipment, chain links, ordnance material, electrical pole line hardware, hand tools, and other parts. Other applications are flanges, pipe fittings, and valve parts for railroad, marine, and other heavy-duty service to 345 °C (650...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... stacked 3D TSV Daisy Chains , 2014 . [43] Schrag B. D. et al . Quantitative analysis and depth measurement via magnetic field imaging . EDFAS Magazine , 7 ( 4 ), 2005 . [44] Roth B. J. et al . Using a magnetometer to image two-dimensional current distribution . J. Appl...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
..., hammers, diagonal pliers, armature shafts, and so forth Oil-country tubular products Structural members Spring steel Chain links Only the portions that need to be hardened are heated, leaving the remainder of the crankshaft relatively soft for easy machining and balancing. Figure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... in engineering polymers. Factors Affecting Fatigue Performance of Polymers Molecular Variables Polymers are sensitive to a number of molecular variables, including molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, crystallinity, chain entanglement density, and cross-linking ( Ref 3 , 5 , 20 , 21...