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Caustic cracking

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Published: 01 December 2018
Fig. 6.105 Boiler tube showing cracking due to caustic embrittlement More
Image
Published: 01 December 2015
Fig. 25 Caustic stress-corrosion cracking in the heat-affected zone of a type 316L stainless steel NaOH reactor vessel. Cracks are branching and intergranular. More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... Abstract This chapter takes a practical approach to the problem of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) in stainless steels, explaining how different application environments affect different grades of stainless steel. It describes the causes of stress-corrosion cracking in chloride, caustic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
..., including general corrosion, under-deposit corrosion, microbially induced corrosion, flow-accelerated corrosion, stress-assisted corrosion, erosion-corrosion, cavitation, oxygen pitting, stress-corrosion cracking, and caustic embrittlement. The discussion is supported by several illustrations and relevant...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
..., bromides, iodides, and fluorides), sulfur-bearing compounds (such as H2S and sulfur-oxyanions), high-temperature and supercritical water, and caustics (such as NaOH), while accounting for temperature, composition, microstructure, properties, environmental contaminants, and other factors. The chapter also...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... 1282 186 >2600 6534 651 Source: Ref 2.52 2.3.6 Hydroxides Stress-corrosion cracking of steels due to sodium hydroxide, generally called “caustic cracking” or “embrittlement,” has been a phenomenon most commonly associated with steam boilers. Recent SCC problems with continuous...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... corrosion or phosphate hide out Microbially induced corrosion Flow-assisted corrosion (FAC) Erosion corrosion Cavitation damage Oxygen attack or oxygen pitting Stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) Caustic stress-corrosion cracking or caustic embrittlement Stress-assisted corrosion (SAC...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... ( Ref 18.12 , 18.15 , 18.22 – 18.24 ). In the late 19th century, cracking in sodium hydroxide (NaOH)—formerly known as caustic embrittlement—was a serious problem in riveted steam boilers ( Ref 18.15 , 18.25 ), where the faying surfaces under the rivets provided ideal places for the evaporation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
...: Petroleum refining and petrochemical operations Boiling water reactor (BWR) piping systems Components used in pulp and paper plants In petroleum and petrochemical operations, hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC), particularly in the presence of wet hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), has been a major concern...
Image
Published: 01 December 2006
Fig. 21 Caustic SCC in the HAZ of a type 316L stainless steel NaOH reactor vessel. Cracks are branching and intergranular. More
Image
Published: 01 December 2015
Fig. 4 Temperature and concentration limits for stress-corrosion cracking susceptibility of carbon steels in caustic soda. Source: Ref 6 , 11 More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... a shutdown, corrosion can be caused by pockets of water left in the process units and associated piping. Most petroleum refining and petrochemical plant operations involve flammable hydrocarbon streams, highly toxic or explosive gases, and strong acids or caustics that are often at elevated temperatures...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430376
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... 122 – 127 6.13 Bain D. and Christophersen D. , Some Common Mechanisms Leading to Failures in Heat Recovery Steam Generators , Corrosion 2003 , NACE International , March 2003 , p 185 – 213 6.14 Dooley R.B. and Bursik A. , Caustic Gouging , Power Point...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... of a tensile stress and a specific corrodent. Corrodents known to cause SCC in stainless steels are chloride solutions at elevated temperatures, caustic solutions, acids, aqueous solutions containing sulfur compounds, and high-temperature (300 °C, or 570 °F) water containing traces of dissolved oxygen. For SCC...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... to overheating. 7.2.6 Sodium Sodium exists in water in its ionic form as Na + ions. Sodium ions combine with hydroxide ions to form sodium hydroxide (i.e., caustic soda). Sodium hydroxide attacks the highly stressed areas of boiler tubes and steam turbines, leading to stress-corrosion cracking failure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.9781627082532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... cracks were observed after inspection. This was originally attributed to quench cracking. On further examination, it was determined that a lap was present in the forging, indicated by the presence of high-temperature oxides in the crack along the crack faces. Fig. 1 A large roll was found to have...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
...: Rubber-lined steel for water treatment ion exchange resin beds, which must be periodically regenerated with salt brine or dilute mineral acids or caustic solutions Glass-lined steel for reaction vessels in chlorinated hydrocarbon service Acid-proof brick and membrane-lined steel for higher...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... At higher solution temperatures, sensitized type 304 and type 316 are particularly susceptible to SCC, whether caused by chlorides, sulfur compounds, or caustic. For example, type 304 or 316 kraft black liquor evaporators and white liquor tubing are subject to SCC in sensitized HAZs. In many cases cracking...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... metallurgical examination of leaking welds from various lines conclusively confirmed that the leaking originated at stress-corrosion cracks. No leaks were found in rich amine piping. The characteristics of the mode of fracture suggested that the failure mechanism was a form of caustic SCC. It is interesting...