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Carbon flotation

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
..., such as sodium carbonate, to adjust the pH to 9.5. Sodium fluoride is typically used as an activator, but sodium silico-hexafluoride can also be used. A depressant such as sodium hexametaphosphate and carboxylmethyl cellulose is used to depress albite, mica, carbonates, fluorite, siliceous gangues, and even...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
..., higher silicon increases nodularity. The optimum carbon and silicon contents can be selected from Fig. 2. The optimum CE must be selected as a function of section size. For a given section size, too high a CE will result in graphite flotation, as in the case of spheroidal graphite cast iron; too low a CE...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240547
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... liquor. In vapormetallurgy, a carbonyl process uses a gas-to-metal transformation to extract pure nickel from an impure nickel oxide. Oxide is reduced with hydrogen, and the nickel reacts selectively with carbon monoxide to form gaseous nickel carbonyl. The gas is then decomposed by heating to yield high...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
...)] VI Carbonates Beryllium-tengerite (Y,Ce)Be[CO 3 ](OH) 3 · H 2 O Source: Rao and Sreenivas 1994 3.2 Geological Outcroppings Commercial applications of beryllium began more than 70 years ago, and usage of beryllium alloys, beryllium metal, and beryllium oxide has shown only slow...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... included among the rejected candidates are potassium acid sulfate, potassium acid fluoride, sodium, carbonate, and others. The search for less expensive sources of alkali led to the lime fusion process of Bayliss and Derry [1963] . The addition of large amounts of CaCO 3 to beryl before fusing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
... lists the gray iron grades designated in ASTM International and SAE International standards and their applications. The hardness, measured as a Brinell hardness number (BHN), is specified at a designated location on the casting. The carbon content is specified in the standards to target the thermal...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... flotation. For 4% Si irons, the carbon content should range from 3.2 to 3.5% C, depending on section size, and at 5% Si it should be about 2.9% C. Figure 10(b) shows the increase in short-time elevated temperature strength made possible by increasing the silicon...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... Submolecular Structure As noted in the preceding article, most engineering plastics are based on organic (carbonbase) polymers, where the carbon atom plays a critical role in developing final properties. Hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, fluorine, and chlorine are among the many atoms that are built...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
...% silicon) will result in carbon flotation. Low CE levels present manufacturing issues such as excessive shrinkage porosity. Low levels of silicon might result in white iron. Figure 9.3 ( Ref 1 ) summarizes the preferred ranges of carbon and silicon. Fig. 9.3 Ductile iron carbon and silicon ranges...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... highly alloyed and expensive stainless steel rather than a plain carbon or low-alloy steel Changing the environment by desiccation or the use of inhibitors Controlling the electrochemical potential by the application of cathodic or anodic currents, that is, cathodic and anodic protection...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.9781627082976
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... in IN-718 nickel-base superalloy billet forged from vacuum arc remelted ingot in which control of melt conditions was lost. Note: Composition of freckle vs. matrix was by microprobe and does not show carbon, which would be elevated in the freckles. Compositions of a freckle and surrounding matrix area...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230523
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... Compounds , Westbrook J.H. and Fleischer R.L. , Ed., John Wiley & Sons , New York , 1994 Draycott A. , Nicholson F.D. , Price G.H. , and Stuart W.I. , 1961 . “ Study of the Variables Affecting the Corrosion of Beryllium in Carbon Dioxide ,” Report AAEC/E-83...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.9781627082983
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... to make carbon/epoxy parts. The third lay-up process, low-temperature/vacuum bag curing prepreg, was originally developed for making carbon/epoxy tools. However, due to material and process improvements, it is now viewed as an alternative to autoclave curing when the part count is small and the cost...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
...-, or three-dimensional molecules. The mer units of polymers are bonded to one another with strong covalent bonds. Most polymers contain mainly carbon in their backbone structures because of the unique ability of carbon to form extensive, stable covalent bonds. While covalent bonds are stronger than metallic...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... of sodium aluminate by seeding and precipitation and is converted to the oxide, Al 2 O 3 , by calcination. Present practice for aluminum electrolysis involves the use of the Hall-Héroult cell as pictured in Fig. 2 . The cell is lined with carbon, which acts as the cathode; steel bars are embedded...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... illustration). Gifkins also used EDTA additions to alcoholic ferric chloride to etch alpha brass creep specimens. Without EDTA, staining occurred where slip was intense. Stains can also be removed after etching by ultrasonic cleaning with a dilute EDTA solution. Figure 3-3 shows a carbon steel sheet...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.9781627082600
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550511
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... to as siliconized SiC). In direct-sintered SiC, submicrometer SiC powder is compacted and sintered at temperatures in excess of 2000 °C (3600 °F), resulting in a high-purity product. Reaction-bonded SiC, on the other hand, is processed by forming a porous shape comprised of SiC and carbon-powder particles...