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Blast furnace components

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... furnace Fig. 4.5 Sketch from De Re Metallica showing soot emissions from a medieval blast furnace Fig. 4.6 Micrograph showing typical slag inclusions in wrought iron. Original magnification: 500× Fig. 4.8 Titanium heat exchanger using several grades of commercially pure...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... is followed by pickling to remove metal contamination. For parts that must be resistance or solid-state welded or brazed or that have highly tenacious scales produced by furnace atmospheres, pickling after dry abrasive cleaning is recommended, regardless of the abrasive used. Wet abrasive blasting, known...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... become saturated with nitrogen. This can be remedied by shot blasting the inside surface of the process chamber or by regenerating the chamber by heating up to a temperature of 785 °C (1450 °F), followed by light shot glass bead blasting or sandblasting. When the process chamber is opened after...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... of wash and rinse, the drying can be accomplished by external drying methods such as a warm dry air blast. Once the wash cycle is complete, the parts should be removed by the process technician wearing lint-free cotton gloves to exclude the risk of fingerprints, which leave behind a very thin film...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... Fig. 1 Principal steps in steelmaking. Source: Ref 1 Fig. 2 The iron blast furnace. Source: Ref 1 Fig. 5 Comparison of air- and vacuum-melted 300M steel. Source: Ref 4 Fig. 12 Schematic of an argon oxygen decarburization vessel. Source: Ref 12 Fig...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
..., blast furnaces that produced cast iron in large quantities for intensive industrial development in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries were developed ( Ref 2.9 – 2.11 ). Iron ore was converted by reduction with blasts of air, charcoal, and limestone to produce cast iron in small ingots...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... for making steel today: the electric arc furnace and the basic oxygen furnace (BOF). While the electric arc furnace mainly uses scrap steel, the BOF requires a charge of molten iron, which is produced in blast furnaces. A general diagram for the production of steel from raw materials to finished mill...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... to be brazed, care should be exercised to ensure that the coolant is clean and free from impurities to avoid grinding these impurities into the finished surfaces. When faying surfaces of parts to be brazed are prepared by blasting techniques, several factors should be considered. There are two purposes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... will form a steam pocket under the paint, producing a bubble. When the bubble bursts, a localized hard spot will form on the exposed steel. Stop-off paint residues can be reduced by brushing or washing, or removed by light blasting with fine abrasives. Selective nitriding can be accomplished in salt...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... iron atoms, case formation begins at the work surface of iron nitrides: Sputtered Fe + N = FeN At this point, intensive surface cleaning of the workpiece occurs due to the sputtering action on the surface. This can be likened to atomic shot blasting where the carrier medium is the air blast...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pb.t51230105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-351-5
... Balance and the Influence of Grit Blasting on Brazing of IN718 , Weld. J. Res. Suppl. , Vol 72 ( No. 10 ), p 278s – 287s • Stubbington C.A. , 1988 . Materials Trends in Military Airframes , Metals and Mater. , Vol 4 ( No. 7 ), p 424 – 431 • Takemoto T. and Okamoto I...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... coatings, for example, almost always require blast cleaning, while some alkyd and oil-base coating systems can be applied over rust, mill scale, or a poorly cleaned surface. In addition to being cleaned, the surface must be roughened to provide for a mechanical bond of the paint to the substrate...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770037
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
...? If the decarburization is shallow, can it be grit blasted in the critical areas to remove the affected layer and shot peened to ensure surface compression? If the decarburization is deeper than what can be reasonably grit blasted and shot peened, can the part be recovered by reclamation heat treatment ( Ref 16...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... atomically blast the workpiece surfaces, a more thorough and effective method than aqueous cleaning. Holding time at the sputter clean temperature is determined by the initial surface cleanliness but generally is not more than 20 to 30 min. If the workpiece surfaces are badly contaminated, a gaseous...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... similar in principle to blast furnaces, they are not miniature blast furnaces. In operation, coke, flux, and metal are charged into the top of the furnace, and air, often preheated and/or enriched with oxygen, is blown in at the bottom through tuyeres. The coke burns in the air, melting the metal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... at that temperature for a few hours. This procedure will “burn” out the nitrogen and cause the chrome to oxidize, thus forming chrome oxide. After the process chamber cools, the surfaces are cleaned by either shot-blasting or sandblasting. The frequency of regeneration correlates with retort usage and will vary from...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... engine (~2.5×). Advanced burning originated from the large crack. Additional thermal-fatigue cracks are also present on the valve face. Engine efficiency rapidly deteriorates from increasing loss of compression when very hot exhaust gases blast through the open passage (also called blowby ). Fig...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... design will use a process optimally suited to a particular material thickness and joint configuration. Process suitability must consider component size and shape. For example, will the component fit in an available electron beam welding (EBW) chamber or brazing furnace? If necessary, can the entire part...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
..., blasting, and/or media finishing. Inspect the part to standards set by the caster and by the consumer. Inspection consists of all or most of the following: visual, fluorescent penetration, radiography, ultrasonic (for wall thickness in hollow parts), and dimensional gaging. If the article is DS...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... immensely to the cause of sustainability in the materials cycle. The World Steel Association identifies eight indicators of sustainability ( Ref 16.1 ): Emissions produced by the steel industry result mostly from the chemical reaction to reduce the iron ore to crude iron in the blast furnace...